Author Archives: Raven

Cherokee Prophecy

“The stone tablets of the yellow race of people are kept by the Tibetans. If you went straight through the Hopi Reservation to the other side of the world, you would come out in Tibet. The Tibetan word for sun is the Hopi word for moon, and the Hopi word for sun is the Tibetan word for moon.” Cherokee Prophecy »»

What is genocide?

Buy this native american genocide t-shirt

A California University grapples with this question over a dispute between a native American student and the university’s history professor. What is genocide? »»

Las Vegas Indian Colony

The Las Vegas Paiute Tribe lives in the Las Vegas Indian Colony in Las Vegas,Nevada and has additional land north of Las Vegas along the Reno-Tonopah Highway, near the Mt. Chareston turnoff. Las Vegas Indian Colony »»

Goshute, Paiute, Shoshone, and Ute Creation Story

The Goshutes at Skull Valley tell the creation story of the Goshute, Paiute, Shoshone, Ute and other tribes. Goshute, Paiute, Shoshone, and Ute Creation Story »»

Goshute Reservation, Utah and Nevada

The Goshute Reservation is located in Utah and Nevada and is home to the Confederated Tribe of the Goshute Reservation, which are Shoshone, Paiute, Ute, Gosiute (Goshute), and other tribes. Goshute Reservation, Utah and Nevada »»

Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation

The Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation is located in Nevada and Oregon.  It is home to the Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribe. Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation »»

Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe Colony and Reservation

The Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe Colony and Reservation is located in Nevada. Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe Colony and Reservation »»

Ely Shoshone Tribal Lands

The  Ely Shoshone Tribal Lands are located on the Southwest & Southeast sides of the City of Ely, Nevada in three seperate locations. Ely Shoshone Tribal Lands »»

Bidai Tribe

The Bidai tribe is named with a Caddo word meaning “brushwood,” probably referring to the peculiar growth characteristic of the region. Extinct today, they belonged to the Caddoan stock, whose villages were scattered over a wide territory, but principally about Trinity River in Texas, while some were as far north as the Neches River or beyond. Bidai Tribe »»

Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin

One reason the BIA chose the Menominee for termination was that the tribe had successful forestry and lumbering operations that the BIA believed could support the tribe economically.

Congress passed an act in 1954 that officially called for the termination of the Menominee as a federally recognized Indian tribe. Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin »»

Northern Ponca Tribe

In 1962, the Congress of the United States decided that the Northern Ponca Tribe should be terminated. In 1966 the Northern Poncas were completely terminated and all of their land and tribal holdings were dissolved.

This termination removed 442 Ponca from the tribal rolls, dispossessing them of 834 acres and began the process of total decline. Northern Ponca Tribe »»

Iroquois Terminology

Many words in the English language have their origin in a native american language. Here is some Iroquois terminology that we recognize today. Iroquois Terminology »»

Adai Indians

 The Adai Indians were a tribe of the Caddo Confederacy. They spoke a dialect closely related to that of the Kadohadacho, Hainai, and Anadarko.

The tribe-was first encountered in 1529 by Cabeza de Vaca, who called them Atayo, and said they were living inland from the Gulf of Mexico. Adai Indians »»

Athabascan Language Groups in Alaska

There are eleven linguistic groups of Athabascan Indians in Alaska. Athabascan people have traditionally lived along five major river ways: the Yukon, the Tanana, the Susitna, the Kuskokwim, and the Copper river drainages.

Athabascans migrated seasonally, traveling in small groups to fish, hunt and trap.

Today, Athabascans live throughout Alaska and the Lower 48, returning to their home territories to harvest traditional resources. The Athabascan people call themselves ‘Dena,’ or ‘the people.’

In traditional and contemporary practices Athabascans are taught respect for all living things. The most important part of Athabascan subsistence living is sharing.

All hunters are part of a kin-based network in which they are expected to follow traditional customs for sharing in the community.

The Athabascan Indians traditionally live in Interior Alaska, an expansive region that begins south of the Brooks Mountain Range and continues down to the Kenai Peninsula.

The area occupied by northern Athapaskan Indians lies directly south of the true arctic regions in a belt of coniferous forests broken in places by high mountains and stretches of treeless tundra.

Except in the far western portion where the Rocky Mountains occur, much of this area is of relatively slight elevation, and there are numerous low, rolling glaciated hills.

Climate of the Athapaskan Region

The climate of the region is is characterized by long, cold winters and short, warm summers. Snowfall is heavier than along the arctic coast, and in general the climate is quite different from the desert-like coastal areas inhabited by the Inuit and Inupiat.

House Types and Settlements

The Athabascans traditionally lived in small groups of 20 to 40 people that moved systematically through the resource territories. Annual summer fish camps for the entire family and winter villages served as base camps.

Depending on the season and regional resources, several traditional house types were used.

Athabascan Tools and Technology

Traditional tools and technology reflect the resources of the regions. Traditional tools were made of stone, antlers, wood, and bone.

Such tools were used to build houses, boats, snowshoes, clothing, and cooking utensils. Birch trees were used wherever they were found.

Athabascan Culture and Social Organization

The Athabascan culture is a matrilineal system in which children belong to the mother’s clan, rather than to the father’s clan, with the exception of the Holikachuk and the Deg Hit’an.

Clan elders made decisions concerning marriage, leadership, and trading customs. Often the core of the traditional culture was a woman and her brother, and their two families.

In such a combination the brother and his sister’s husband often became hunting partners for life. Sometimes these hunting partnerships started when a couple married.

Traditional Athabascan husbands were expected to live with the wife’s family during the first year, when the new husband would work for the family and go hunting with his brothers-in-law.

A central feature of traditional Athabascan life was (and still is for some) a system whereby the mother’s brother takes social responsibility for training and socializing his sister’s children so that the children grow up knowing their clan history and customs.

Athabascan Clothing

Traditional clothing reflects the local resources. For the most part, clothing was made of caribou and moose hide. Moose and caribou hide moccasins and boots were important parts of the wardrobe.

Styles of moccasins vary depending on conditions. Both men and women are adept at sewing, although women traditionally did most of skin sewing.

Athabaskan Transportation

Canoes were made of birch bark, moose hide, and cottonwood. All Athabascans used sleds –with and without dogs to pull them – snowshoes and dogs as pack animals.

Athabascan Regalia

Traditional regalia varies from region to region. Regalia may include men’s beaded jackets, dentalium shell necklaces (traditionally worn by chiefs), men and women’s beaded tunics and women’s beaded dancing boots.

Athabascan Traditions

Activities were marked by the passing moons, each named according to the changing conditions: “when the first king salmon comes,” “when the moose loose their antlers,” “little crust comes on snow,” and so on.

The winter was “the time we gathered together.” when scattered families returned to thier winter villages, hunted smaller animals close by and gathered for potlaches and other community celebrations.

Jeff Smith, slave of Geronimo

Historical account about two boys who were taken captive by the Lipan apache and Comanche indians. One of them was sold to Geronimo, to be his slave. Jeff Smith, slave of Geronimo »»

Pit River Tribe Historical Timeline

Here is an historical timeline of some of the prehistoric and historical events and periods related to the Pit River Tribe.  Pit River Tribe Historical Timeline »»

Crow Creek Sioux Reservation Overview

The Crow Creek Sioux Reservation is located in the central portion of South Dakota, 26 miles northwest of Chamberlain, South Dakota, which is on Interstate 90.  Crow Creek Sioux Reservation Overview »»

Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama buys Sands Bethlehem Casino in Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania gaming industry received a surprise last week with the announcement of Sands Bethlehem being sold to Wind Creek Hospitality, a  Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama subsidiary, for $1.3 billion. Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama buys Sands Bethlehem Casino in Pennsylvania »»

Yurok Tribe blames pharmaceutical companies for opioid epidemic in federal lawsuit

The following is a press release issued by the Yurok Tribe:

The Yurok Tribe filed in federal court a RICO case against the pharmaceutical giants that are alleged to be responsible for the surging opioid epidemic in the United States and on the Yurok Reservation. Yurok Tribe blames pharmaceutical companies for opioid epidemic in federal lawsuit »»

Devils Lake Sioux Indian Reservation

The Fort Totten Service Unit serves 4,439 Indians of the Devils Lake Sioux Indian Reservation according to the Indian Health Service (IHS) User Population Estimates for FY-1991. 

The Indian population density of the service unit is approximately 1 person per square mile.  Devils Lake Sioux Indian Reservation »»

Cheyenne River Reservation

The Cheyenne River Reservation is home to descendants of the Tetonwan Division of the Great Sioux Nation. The four Tribes include the Minneconjou, Itazapcosni, Sihasapa and the Oehe Numpa.

The Reservation is located in north central South Dakota and borders the Standing Rock Reservation on the north. The Cheyenne River is the southern boundary of the reservation. Dewey and Ziebach County lines are the western border with the Missouri River as the eastern boundary. Cheyenne River Reservation »»

Rosebud Sioux Reservation

The Rosebud Sioux Reservation members are descendants of the Sicangu Oyate of the Tetonwan Division of the Great Sioux Nation. 

The Rosebud Sioux Tribe includes the Sicangu or Brule Tribe of the Lakota Nation also known as the Heyata Wicasa or Upper Brule.  Rosebud Sioux Reservation »»

Spotted Tail, Brule Sioux

Among the Sioux chiefs of the “transition period” only one was shrewd enough to read coming events in their true light.

It is said of Spotted Tail that he was rather a slow-moving boy, preferring in their various games and mimic battles to play the role of councilor, to plan and assign to the others their parts in the fray. Spotted Tail, Brule Sioux »»

Two Strike (Nomkahpa), Sioux

The name of Two Strike is a deed name. In a battle with the Utes this man knocked two enemies from the back of a war horse. The true rendering of the name Nomkahpa would be, “He knocked off two.” 

It is a pity that so many interesting names of well-known Indians have been mistranslated, so that their meaning becomes very vague if it is not wholly lost. In some cases an opposite meaning is conveyed.

For instance there is the name, “Young-Man-Afraid-of- His-Horses.” It does not mean that the owner of the name is afraid of his own horse — far from it! Tashunkekokipapi signifies “The young men [of the enemy] fear his horses.” Whenever that man attacks, the enemy knows there will be a determined charge.

The name Tashunkewitko, or Crazy Horse, is a poetic simile. This leader was likened to an untrained or untouched horse, wild, ignorant of domestic uses, splendid in action, and unconscious of danger.

I was well acquainted with Two Strike and spent many pleasant hours with him, both at Washington, D. C., and in his home on the Rosebud reservation.

What I have written is not all taken from his own mouth, because he was modest in talking about himself, but I had him vouch for the truth of the stories.

Two Strike said that he was born near the Republican River about 1832. His earliest recollection was of an attack by the Shoshones upon their camp on the Little Piney.

The first white men Two Strike ever met were traders who visited his people when he was very young. The incident was still vividly with him, because, he said, “They made my father crazy,” (drunk). This made a deep impression upon him, he told me, so that from that day he was always afraid of the white man’s “mysterious water.”

Two Strike was not a large man, but he was very supple and alert in motion, as agile as an antelope. His face was mobile and intelligent. Although Two Strike had the usual somber visage of an Indian, his expression brightened up wonderfully when he talked.

In some ways wily and shrewd in intellect, he was not deceitful nor mean. Two Strike had a high sense of duty and honor. Patriotism was his ideal and goal of life.

As a young man Two Strike was modest and even shy, although both his father and grandfather were well-known chiefs. I could find few noteworthy incidents in his early life, save that he was an expert rider of wild horses.

At one time I was pressing him to give me some interesting incident of his boyhood. He replied to the effect that there was plenty of excitement but “not much in it.”

There was a delegation of Sioux chiefs visiting Washington, and we were spending an evening together in their hotel. Hollow Horn Bear spoke up and said:

“Why don’t you tell him how you and a buffalo cow together held your poor father up and froze him almost to death?”

Everybody laughed, and another man remarked: “I think he had better tell the medicine man (meaning myself) how he lost the power of speech when he first tried to court a girl.” Two Strike, although he was then close to eighty years of age, was visibly embarrassed by their chaff.

“Anyway, I stuck to the trail. I kept on till I got what I wanted,” he muttered. And then came the story.

The old chief, his father, was very fond of the buffalo hunt; and being accomplished in horsemanship and a fine shot, although not very powerfully built, young Two Strike was already following hard in his footsteps.

Like every proud father, his was giving him every incentive to perfect his skill, and one day challenged his sixteen-year-old son to the feat of “one arrow to kill” at the very next chase.

It was midwinter. A large herd of buffalo was reported by the game scout. The hunters gathered at daybreak prepared for the charge. The old chief had his tried charger equipped with a soft, pillow-like Indian saddle and a lariat.

His old sinew-backed hickory bow was examined and strung, and a fine straight arrow with a steel head carefully selected for the test. He adjusted a keen butcher knife over his leather belt, which held a warm buffalo robe securely about his body.

He wore neither shirt nor coat, although a piercing wind was blowing from the northwest. The youthful Two Strike had his favorite bow and his swift pony, which was perhaps dearer to him than his closest boy comrade.

Now the hunters crouched upon their horses’ necks like an army in line of battle, while behind them waited the boys and old men with pack ponies to carry the meat.

“Hukahey!” shouted the leader as a warning. “Yekiya wo!” (Go) and in an instant all the ponies leaped forward against the cutting wind, as if it were the start in a horse race.

Every rider leaned forward, tightly wrapped in his robe, watching the flying herd for an opening in the mass of buffalo, a chance to cut out some of the fattest cows. This was the object of the race.

The chief had a fair start; his horse was well trained and needed no urging nor guidance. Without the slightest pull on the lariat he dashed into the thickest of the herd. The youth’s pony had been prancing and rearing impatiently; he started a little behind, yet being swift passed many.

Two Strike had one clear glimpse of his father ahead of him, then the snow arose in blinding clouds on the trail of the bison.

The whoops of the hunters, the lowing of the cows, and the menacing glances of the bulls as they plunged along, or now and then stood at bay, were enough to unnerve a boy less well tried.

Two Strike was unable to select his victim. He had been carried deeply into the midst of the herd and found himself helpless to make the one sure shot, therefore he held his one arrow in his mouth and merely strove to separate them so as to get his chance.

At last the herd parted, and he cut out two fat cows, and was maneuvering for position when a rider appeared out of the snow cloud on their other side.

This aroused him to make haste lest his rival secure both cows; he saw his chance, and in a twinkling his arrow sped clear through one of the animals so that she fell headlong.

In this instant he observed that the man who had joined him was his own father, who had met with the same difficulties as himself. When the young man had shot his only arrow, the old chief with a whoop went after the cow that was left, but as he gained her broadside, his horse stepped in a badger hole and fell, throwing him headlong.

The maddened buffalo, as sometimes happens in such cases, turned upon the pony and gored him to death. His rider lay motionless, while Two Strike rushed forward to draw her attention, but she merely tossed her head at him, while persistently standing guard over the dead horse and the all but frozen Indian.

Alas for the game of “one arrow to kill!” The boy must think fast, for his father’s robe had slipped off, and he was playing dead, lying almost naked in the bitter air upon the trampled snow.

Two Strike’s bluff would not serve, so he flew back to pull out his solitary arrow from the body of the dead cow. Quickly wheeling again, Two Strike sent it into her side and she fell.

The one arrow to kill had become one arrow to kill two buffalo! At the council lodge that evening Two Strike was the hero.

The following story is equally characteristic of him, and in explanation it should be said that in the good old days among the Sioux, a young man is not supposed to associate with girls until he is ready to take a wife.

It was a rule with our young men, especially the honorable and well-born, to gain some reputation in the hunt and in war, — the more difficult the feats achieved the better, — before even speaking to a young woman.

Many a life was risked in the effort to establish a reputation along these lines.

Courtship was no secret, but rather a social event, often celebrated by the proud parents with feasts and presents to the poor, and this etiquette was sometimes felt by a shy or sensitive youth as an insurmountable obstacle to the fulfilment of his desires.

Two Strike was the son and grandson of a chief, but he could not claim any credit for the deeds of his forbears. He had not only to guard their good name but achieve one for himself. This he had set out to do, and he did well.

Two Strike was now of marriageable age with a war record, and admitted to the council, yet he did not seem to trouble himself at all about a wife. His was strictly a bachelor career.

Meanwhile, as is apt to be the case, his parents had thought much about a possible daughter-in-law, and had even collected ponies, fine robes, and other acceptable goods to be given away in honor of the event, whenever it should take place.

Now and then they would drop a sly hint, but with no perceptible effect.

They did not and could not know of the inward struggle that racked his mind at this period of his life. The shy and modest young man was dying for a wife, yet could not bear even to think of speaking to a young woman!

The fearless hunter of buffaloes, mountain lions, and grizzlies, the youth who had won his eagle feathers in a battle with the Utes, could not bring himself to take this tremendous step.

At last his father appealed to him directly. “My son,” he declared, “it is your duty to take unto yourself a wife, in order that the honors won by your ancestors and by yourself may be handed down in the direct line.

There are several eligible young women in our band whose parents have intimated a wish to have you for their son-in-law.”

Two Strike made no reply, but he was greatly disturbed. He had no wish to have the old folks select his bride, for if the truth were told, his choice was already made. He had simply lacked the courage to go a-courting!

The next morning, after making an unusually careful toilet, he took his best horse and rode to a point overlooking the path by which the girls went for water. Here the young men were wont to take their stand, and, if fortunate, intercept the girl of their heart for a brief but fateful interview.

Two Strike had determined to speak straight to the point, and as soon as he saw the pretty maid he came forward boldly and placed himself in her way. A long moment passed. She glanced up at him shyly but not without encouragement. His teeth fairly chattered with fright, and he could not say a word.

She looked again, noted his strange looks, and believed him suddenly taken ill. Two Strike appeared to be suffering. At last he feebly made signs for her to go on and leave him alone. The maiden was sympathetic, but as she did not know what else to do she obeyed his request.

The poor youth was so ashamed of his cowardice that he afterward admitted his first thought was to take his own life. He believed he had disgraced himself forever in the eyes of the only girl he had ever loved.

However, Two Strike determined to conquer his weakness and win her, which he did. The story came out many years after and was told with much enjoyment by the old men.

Two Strike was better known by his own people than by the whites, for he was individually a terror in battle rather than a leader. He achieved his honorable name in a skirmish with the Utes in Colorado.

The Sioux regarded these people as their bravest enemies, and the outcome of the fight was for some time uncertain.

First the Sioux were forced to retreat and then their opponents, and at the latter point the horse of a certain Ute was shot under him. A friend came to his rescue and took him up behind him.

Our hero overtook them in flight, raised his war club, and knocked both men off with one blow.

He was a very old man when he died, only two or three years ago, on the Rosebud reservation.

Source: As remembered by Charles Alexander Eastman (Ohiyesa)

Red Cloud (Mahpiya Luta), Oglalla Sioux

Red Cloud was born about 1819 near the forks of the Platte River. He was one of a family of nine children whose father, an able and respected warrior, reared his son under the old Spartan regime. Red Cloud (Mahpiya Luta), Oglalla Sioux »»

Crazy Horse (Tashunkewitko), Oglala Sioux

Crazy Horse (Tashunkewitko) was born on the Republican River about 1845. He was killed at Fort Robinson, Nebraska, in 1877, so that he lived barely thirty-three years.  Crazy Horse (Tashunkewitko), Oglala Sioux »»

American Horse (Oglalla Sioux)

One of the wittiest and shrewdest of the Sioux chiefs was American Horse, who succeeded to the name and position of an uncle, killed in the battle of Slim Buttes in 1876. 

The younger American Horse was born a little before the encroachments of the whites upon the Sioux country became serious and their methods aggressive, and his early manhood brought him into that most trying and critical period of our history.  American Horse (Oglalla Sioux) »»

Rain-in-the-Face (Itonagaju), Hunkpapa Sioux

The noted Hunkpapa Sioux warrior, Rain-in-the-Face, (Ité Omáǧažu or Itonagaju), whose name once carried terror to every part of the frontier, died at his home on the Standing Rock reserve in North Dakota on September 14, 1905. About two months before his death I went to see him for the last time, where he lay upon the bed of sickness from which he never rose again, and drew from him his life-history. Rain-in-the-Face (Itonagaju), Hunkpapa Sioux »»

List of top Native American Organizations

A list of native american resources serving native american communities. List of top Native American Organizations »»

3 Mohawk Kings and 1 Mahican Indian King in North America

Generally, native americans in what would become the United States and Canada didn’t have royalty such as kings, but there were rare exceptions. There  were three Mohawk chiefs of the Iroquois Confederacy and a Mahican of the Algonquian peoples who were called Kings.

While these four Iroquois were not the first American Indians to visit England (Pocahontas had come in 1616), they were the first to be treated as heads of state.  3 Mohawk Kings and 1 Mahican Indian King in North America »»

Battle of Quebec, 1759

Battle of Quebeck 1759

Following the successful capture of Louisbourg in 1758, British leaders began planning for a strike against Quebec the next year.The Battle of Quebec was fought September 13, 1759, during the French & Indian War (1754-1763). Battle of Quebec, 1759 »»

Siege of Louisborg – King George’s War (1744–1748)

King George’s War is the European name given to the operations that formed the 1744–1748 War of the Austrian Succession. It was the third of the four French and Indian Wars. Also known as the  War of Jenkins’ Ear, it officially began when a Spanish commander chopped off the ear of English merchant captain Robert Jenkins and told him to take that to his king, George II.

The  Siege of Louisbourg  was the major battle in this war that took place on North American soil. Loisbourg was the capital of the French province of Île-Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island). Siege of Louisborg – King George’s War (1744–1748) »»

Indian Tribes Involved in the French and Indian War

Indians who fought in the French and Indian War

The French and Indian War (called the Seven Years’ War in Europe) was fought from 1754-1763.  The French and Indian War was the last of four major colonial wars between the British, the French, and their Native American allies for control of North America.

It was the first North American global war, fought in North America, India, Prussia, Austria and other European countries, Russia, and West Africa. During the fighting that occurred on North American soil, both sides often had Indian allies. Sometimes factions of one tribe fought on both sides. Here is a brief explanation of who fought on what side. Indian Tribes Involved in the French and Indian War »»

Battle of Lake George

The Battle of Lake George took place September 8, 1755, during the French & Indian War (1754-1763) fought between the French and British. About 200 Mohawk warriors fought with Sir William Johnson and 1,500 men for the British against Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau, 2,800 frenchmen, and 700 allied Indians, including Mohawks from Canada, for the French.

The Mohawks and British won this battle, but at a steep cost. Battle of Lake George »»

French and Indian War, 1758-1763

Johnson sparing Baron Dieskau's life after the Battle of Lake George. Public Domain Photo

For 1758, the British government, now headed by the Duke of Newcastle as prime minister and William Pitt as secretary of state, turned its attention to recovering from the previous years’ reverses in North America. To accomplish this, Pitt devised a three-prong strategy which called for British troops to move against Fort Duquesne in Pennsylvania, Fort Carillon on Lake Champlain, and the fortress of Louisbourg. French and Indian War, 1758-1763 »»

French and Indian War, 1754-1757


The French and Indian War began in 1754 as British and French forces clashed in the wilderness of North America. Two years later, the conflict spread to Europe where it became known as the Seven Years’ War.

In many ways an extension of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), the conflict saw a shifting of alliances with Britain joining with Prussia while France allied with Austria.

The first war fought on a global scale, it saw battles in Europe, North America, Africa, India, and the Pacific. Concluding in 1763, the French & Indian / Seven Years’ War cost France the bulk of its North American territory. French and Indian War, 1754-1757 »»

How Black Seminoles Found Freedom from Slavery in Florida

Seminole Indians in traditional dress.

Black Seminoles were enslaved Africans and African Americans who, beginning in the late 17th century fled plantations in the southern American colonies and joined with the newly-formed Seminole tribe in Spanish-owned Florida.

From the late 1690s until Florida became a U.S. territory in 1821, thousands of Native Americans and runaway slaves fled what is now the southeastern United States, heading not to the north, but rather to the relatively open promise of the Florida peninsula. How Black Seminoles Found Freedom from Slavery in Florida »»

Seneca War Chief Corn Planter

Seneca war chief  Corn Planter,(born between 1732 and 1746–February 18, 1836), was known in the Seneca language as  Gaiänt’wakê (Gyantwachia – ″the planter″) or Kaiiontwa’kon (Kaintwakon – “By What One Plants”). He was also known by his white name, John Abeel III. He was a Seneca war chief and diplomat of the Wolf clan. Seneca War Chief Corn Planter »»

Cornstalk, Shawnee Chief

Shawnee Chief Cornstalk

A great deal about Cornstalk, a Shawnee chief, has been written, referring to him by at least three names. He was born ca 1720 in one of the Shawnee villages in the drainage of the upper Susquehanna River.

Cornstalk is said to have been born in western Pennsylvania at least by 1720, but some sources say 1708, 1710, or 1715 and his current grave marker says 1727. He moved with his family when he was about 10 to Ohio. Cornstalk, Shawnee Chief »»

The Fort Finney treaty of 1786

Fort Finney Treaty of 1786

As colonists and later the Americans, crowded into Native American lands in the Ohio Valley and beyond, large chunks of those lands were usurped from the natives. This story was typical of the many mistreatments foisted upon the Indians. The Fort Finney treaty of 1786 was a prelude to the war for Ohio. The Fort Finney treaty of 1786 »»

Blue Jacket or Weyapiersenwah (c. 1743 – c. 1810)

Blue Jacket or Weyapiersenwah (c. 1743 – c. 1810) was a war chief of the Shawnee people, known for his militant defense of Shawnee lands in the Ohio Country.

Perhaps the preeminent American Indian leader in the Northwest Indian War, in which a pan-tribal confederacy fought several battles with the United States, he was an important predecessor of the famous Shawnee leader Tecumseh. Blue Jacket or Weyapiersenwah (c. 1743 – c. 1810) »»

Moor’s Charity School

Moor’s Charity School was founded in 1754 in Lebanon, Connecticut, by Puritan, Calvinist minister Eleazar Wheelock to provide education for Native Americans who desired to be missionaries to the native tribes.

Eleazar Wheelock became involved in education when Samson Occom, a Mohegan Native American, asked Rev. Wheelock for instruction. The English School with teacher Eleazar Wheelock and just one Native student, Samson Occom, transformed into Moor’s Indian Charity School. Moor’s Charity School »»

Joseph Brant, (Thayendanegea)

Joseph Brant, Mohawk Chief

Joseph Brant, Indian name Thayendanegea, meaning “he places two bets”(born 1742, on the banks of the Ohio River —died November 24, 1807, near Brantford, Ontario, Canada), was a Mohawk Indian chief who served not only as a spokesman for his people but also as a Christian missionary and a British military officer during the American Revolution (1775–83). Joseph Brant, (Thayendanegea) »»

Seneca Indian chief Red Jacket, or Sa-Go-Ye-Wat-Ha (1758-1830)

Red Jacket, Seneca chief

Dispute exists about where in New York Red Jacket was born. It could have been at Old Seneca Castle near Geneva, NY, near Cayuga Lake, or even Keuke Lake. His family did spend much time there when he was a boy, and his mother was buried there. So the Keuke Lake location is the most probable. Seneca Indian chief Red Jacket, or Sa-Go-Ye-Wat-Ha (1758-1830) »»

A.I.M. founder, Dennis Banks dies of complications of pneumonia

Dennis Banks, native american activist

Dennis Banks, a founder of the American Indian Movement who helped lead demonstrations — notably the 10-week siege at Wounded Knee, S.D., in 1973 — that at times descended into violence as they brought long-festering tribal wounds to national attention, died Oct. 29 at a hospital in Rochester, Minn. He was 80. A.I.M. founder, Dennis Banks dies of complications of pneumonia »»

November is Native American Heritage Month

A Native American man wearing traditional clothes and feathers dances inside a large room.

November is Native American Heritage Month! It’s time to celebrate the rich histories, diverse cultures and important contributions of our nation’s first people. Interior works to honor the nation’s trust responsibilities and special commitments to American Indians and Alaska Natives.

Check out how Interior supports Native American heritage and helps individuals and tribes strive towards a bright future. November is Native American Heritage Month »»

Dohasan, last Principal chief of the Kiowa

Kiowa chief Dohasan

Dohasan is the hereditary name of a line of chiefs of the Kiowa for nearly a century. It has been borne by at least four members of the family.

The first of whom there is remembrance was originally called Pá-do‛gâ′-i or Padó‛gå, ‘White-faced-buffalo-bull’, and this name was afterward changed to Dohá, or Doháte. He was a prominent chief. Dohasan, last Principal chief of the Kiowa »»

Abbigadasset, Abenaki sachem

Abbigadasset, Abenaki

Abbigadasset, AbenakiAbbigadasset was an Abenaki sachem whose residence was on the coast of Maine near the mouth of the Kennebec River.

He conveyed tracts of land to Englishmen conjointly with Kennebis. In 1667 he deeded Swans Island to Humphrey Davy.



















How many Apache sub-tribes were there and where were they located?

Apache Tribes Map


How many Apache sub-tribes were there and where were they located?

~Submitted by Mindy D.


The original homelands of the Apache Indians were in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, western Oklahoma, Western Texas, and Northern Mexico. The Jicarilla also ranged into what is now Kansas. The Apache tribe consists of six subtribes: the Western Apache, Chiricahua, Mescalero, Jicarilla, Lipan and Kiowa. Each subtribe is from a different geographial region. How many Apache sub-tribes were there and where were they located? »»

What percentage Indian do you have to be in order to be a member of a Tribe or Indian Nation?


What percentage Indian do you have to be in order to be a member of a Tribe or Indian Nation?

~Submitted by Sonny S. What percentage Indian do you have to be in order to be a member of a Tribe or Indian Nation? »»

Native women who served in the U.S. Military

In honor of their contributions, here are some Notable Native American Women Veterans that certainly deserve to be recognized. It also goes without saying, that all of our nations veterans and servicemembers are always on our list of heroes, whether or not they appear on this list.

During the American Revolution, (1775-1783) Tyonajanegen, a Native American woman married to an American Army Officer, fought alongside her husband on horseback during a battle in which she loaded her husband’s gun because he had been shot in the wrist.

Since that time, Native women warriors have continued to make contributions to the U.S. military’s fight in conflicts here and overseas. Though women servicemembers have not been as prevalent on the front lines of combat as their male counterparts, their contributions have still been significant. Native women who served in the U.S. Military »»

Wappo Indians

The Wappo language constituted a very divergent form of speech of the Yukian linguistic family. Wappo Indians »»

Luiseño Language

The Luiseño language belongs to the Cupan group of Takic languages, within the major Uto-Aztecan family of languages. About 30 to 40 people speak the language.

In some of the independent bands, individuals are studying the language, language preservation materials are being compiled, and singers sing traditional songs in the luiseno language. Luiseño Language »»

Lassik Indians

The Lassik belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family and were connected very closely with the Nongatl, who lay just to the north.

Lassik Indians »»

Kamia Indians (Kumeyaay)

The Kamia Indians belonged to the Yuman stock of Powell now considered a subdivision of the Hokan family, their closest affinities being with the eastern Diegueno who were sometimes considered one tribe with themselves. Today, they prefer to be called Kumeyaay.

Kamia Indians (Kumeyaay) »»

Modoc Indians

The Modoc Indian territory extended into the northern part of California. With the Klamath, the Modoc constituted the Lutuamian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock of the Penutian language family.

Modoc Indians »»

Nicoleño Language

The Nicoleño language was spoken by a Uto-Aztecan Native American tribe who lived on San Nicolas Island, California.

Archeological evidence suggests San Nicolas, like the other Channel Islands, has been populated for at least 10,000 years, though perhaps not continuously.

It is thought the Nicoleño were closely related to the peoples of Santa Catalina and San Clemente Islands; these were members of the Takic branch of the Uto-Aztecan peoples and were related to the Tongva of modern-day Los Angeles County. Nicoleño Language »»

Hupa Indians

The Hupa belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, forming one closely knit linguistic group with the Chilula and Whilkut.

Hupa Indians »»

Yokuts Indians

—The Yokuts Indians were originally considered a distinct linguistic family but have now been made a part of the large Penutian stock.

Yokuts Indians »»

Yurok Language

Yurok is an Algonquian language. The Yurok Tribe is California’s largest Indian Tribe with nearly 5,000 enrolled members. The Yurok Indians are also known historically as the Pohlik-la, Ner-er-er, Petch-ik-lah and Klamath River Indians.

Yurok Language »»

Tipai-Ipai Tribe (Kumeyaay)

Diegueno is a member language of the Yuman division of the Hokan language family. Tipai-Ipai is the common name since the 1950s of two linguistically related groups formerly known as Kamia (Kumeyaay) and Diegueno. Today, they once again prefer the term Kumeyaay.

Tipai-Ipai Tribe (Kumeyaay) »»

Patwin Indians

The Patwin formed the southernmost and most diverse dialetic division of the former Wintun (or Copehan) linguistic family, now considered part of the Penutian stock.

Patwin Indians »»

Serrano Language

The Serrano language belonged to the Shoshonean Division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock.

Serrano Indians – A Spanish word, meaning “mountaineers.” Also called: Serrano Language »»


With the Mattole, Lassik, Sinkyone, and Nongatl, the Wailaki spoke a Southern Athapaskan language.

Wailaki is a Wintun term meaning “north language.” The tribe had three main subdivisions: Tsennahkenne (Eel River Wailaki); Bahneko (North Fork Wailaki); and Pitch Wailaki (located farther up the North Fork of the Eel River). The Wailaki are culturally related to four other small tribes—the Mattole, Lassik, Sinkyone, and Nongatl—who lived just to their north and west. Wailaki »»

Shasta Indians

The Shasta Indians were one of four Shastan tribes, the other three being Konomihu, Okwanuchu, and New River Shasta. The Shasta Indians constituted part of the Shastan division of the Hokan linguistic stock.

The origin and meaning of the word “Shasta” is obscure, but probably is from a chief called Sasti. Shasta Indians »»

Pomo Indians

The Pomo were originally placed in a distinct linguistic stock (Kulanapan) but are now attached to the widely scattered Hokan family.

Pomo Indians »»

Miwok Indians

Originally a distinct stock in the classificatory system of Powell, Miwok has now been made a subdivision of the Penutian linguistic family.

Miwok Indians »»

Wailaki Indians

The Wailaki Indians belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock and to the southern California group.

Wailaki Indians »»

Wintu Indians

The Wintu Indians were the northernmost division of the Copehan stock of Powell, later called Wintun by Kroeber (1932) and now regarded as part of the Penutian family.

Wintu Indians. The native word meaning “people.” For synonyms see Wintun. Wintu Indians »»

Yuki Indians

The Coast Yuki Indians believe themselves to be an offshoot from the Huchnom but linguistic examination seems to place them near the Yuki.

Yuki, Coast; or Ukhotno’m. (See Yuki.) The second name is applied to them by the interior Yuki, signifying “ocean people.” Yuki Indians »»

Chumash Indians

At first considered a distinct linguistic stock, the Chumash are now included in the larger Hokan family.

Chumash Indians »»

Tubatulabal Language of California

The Tubatulabal language was spoken by Tubatulabal Indians originally living in three autonomous bands: the Pahkanapil, Palagewan, and Bankalachi, or Toloim. Tubatulabal was a subgroup of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

Tubatulabal Language of California »»

Vanyume Language

The Vanyume Indians belonged to the Shoshonean Division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock. Their closest connections being probably with the Kitanemuk, and secondly with the Serrano.

Vanyume Indians. Name applied by the Mohave; significance unknown, though it is probably related to the term Panamint given to the Koso. Also called:

Tübatulabal Indians. A Shoshonean word meaning “pine-nut eaters.” Vanyume Language »»

Salinan Indians

Formerly considered a distinct linguistic stock, the Salinan Indians are now connected with the Hokan linguistic family.

Salinan Indians »»

Gabrielino Language

The nearest connection of the Gabrielino language was the Fernandeno; both belonged to the California branch of the Shoshonean Division of the Uto-Aztecan stock.

Gabrielino Language »»

Yahi Indians

The Yahi Indians constituted the southernmost group of the Yanan division of the Hokan linguistic stock.

Yahi Indians »»

Cahuilla Language

The Cahuilla language belonged to the southern California group of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan stock.

Cahuilla Language »»

Fernandeno Language

Seal of the Fernandeno Mission Indians

The nearest relative of the Fernandeno language was the Gabrielino and both belonged to the California section of the Shoshonean Division of the Uto Aztecan linguistic stock.

Fernandeno Language »»

Atsugewi Indians

With the Achomawi, the Atsugewi constituted the Palaihnihan or eastern group of the Shastan stock, more recently placed by Dixon and Kroeber (1919) in the Hokan family.

Atsugewi Indians »»

Tolowa Indians

The Tolowa Indians constituted one of the divisions into which the California peoples of the Athapascan linguistic stock are divided, but they were closely connected with the Athapascan tribes of Oregon immediately to the north.

Tolowa Indians »»

Huchnom Indians

The Huchnom belonged to the Yukian linguistic stock, though resembling the Porno somewhat more closely in culture.

Huchnom Indians »»

Halchidhoma Indians

The Halchidhoma belonged to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic stock and are said to have spoken the same language as the Yuma tribe and to have been closely connected also with the Maricopa.

Halchidhoma Indians »»

Maidu Indians

Formerly considered an independent stock, the Maidu have now been placed in the Penutian linguistic family.

Maidu Indians »»

Whilkut Indians

The Whilkut Indians belonged to the Hupa dialectic group of the Athapascan linguistic family.

Whilkut Indians. From Hupa Hoilkut-hoi.

Also called: Redwood Indians, the popular name for them. Whilkut Indians »»

Konomihu Indians

The Konomihu was the most divergent of the Shastan group of tribes of the Hokan linguistic family.

Konomihu Indians »»

Chemehuevi Language

The Chemehuevi language was spoken by the Chemehuevi who were a part of the true Paiute and were associated with them and the Ute in one linguistic subdivision of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock.

Chemehuevi Language »»

Yuma Indians

The Yuma were one of the chief tribes of the old Yuman linguistic stock, to which they have given their name, but their closest immediate relatives were the Maricopa and Halchidhoma. The Yuman stock is now considered a part of the larger Hokan family.

Yuma Indians »»

Chilula Indians

With the Hupa and Whilkut, the Chilula formed one group of the Athapascan linguistic stock.

Chilula Indians »»

Kitanemuk Language

The Kitanemuk belonged to the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock and to a subgroup which included also the Alliklik, Vanyume and Serrano.

Kitanemuk Language »»

Esselen Indians

Originally given the status of a distinct stock, the Esselen are now placed in the Hokan linguistic family, their affinities being rather with the Yuman division, to the south, and with the Porno, Yana, and other groups to the north than with their closer neighbors of this stock, the Salinan and Chumash tribes. Esselen Indians »»

Mattole Indians

The Mattole constitute one of the primary divisions of those Indians of the Athapascan stock living in California.

Mattole Indians »»

Sinkyone Indians

The Sinkyone Indians were one of the tribes of the southern California group of the Athapascan family.

Sinkyone Indians »»

Nongatl Indians

The Nongatl belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family and were closely connected with the Lassik.

Nongatl Indians »»

Yana Indians

In the early nineteenth century, the Yana lived in the upper Sacramento River Valley and the adjacent eastern foothills. The elevation of their territory ranged between 300 and 10,000 feet. The Yana Indians were originally considered an independent linguistic stock but are now placed in the larger Hokan family. Its four divisions were Northern, Central, Southern, and Yahi.

Yana Indians »»

Wintun Indians

The Wintun were formerly considered a part of Powell’s Copehan stock and the Wintun of Kroeber (1932) but are now placed in the Penutian family. Synonym for Wintu.

Wintun Indians »»

Dakubetede Indians

The Dakubetede were an Athapascan tribe of Oregon which extended slightly beyond the northern border of California. The Dakubetede belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, using a dialect identical with that of the Taltushtuntude. Dakubetede Indians »»

Okwanuchu Indians

The Okwanuchu belonged to the Shastan Division of the Hokan linguistic stock. Okwanuchu Indians »»

Karok Indians

Originally considered an independent stock, the Karok are now classed in a much larger linguistic connection known as the Hokan family. Their closest relatives are the Chimariko and Shasta.

Karok Indians. Properly Karuk, signifying in their own language “upstream,” but not used as a tribal designation.

  • Ara, given by Gatschet (1890), signifying “man.”
  • Ivap’i, Shasta name.
  • Orleans Indians, a name sometimes locally used, especially downstream from the Karok territory.
  • Petsikla, Yurok name, meaning “upstream.”

Karok Indians »»

Alliklik Language

The Alliklik language belonged to the Californian group of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, their closest relatives probably being the Serrano.

Alliklik Language »»

Juaneño Language

The Juaneño language belonged to the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, their speech being a variant of Luiseno.

Juaneño Indians. Derived from the mission of San Juan Capistrano in California. Also called:
Gaitchim, given by Gatschet (1876). Netela, given by Hale (1846), meaning “my language.” Juaneño Language »»