The Patwin formed the southernmost and most diverse dialetic division of the former Wintun (or Copehan) linguistic family, now considered part of the Penutian stock.
Patwin Indians. Signifying “person” in their own language.
On the western side of Sacramento Valley, and extending from San Francisco Bay to a point a little south of Willows, occupying both sides of Sacramento River from a few miles above its junction with Feather River to the northern boundaries of their territory.
Patwin Subdivisions, or “Tribelets,” and Patwin Villages
(As given by Kroeber, 1932) River Patwin:
- Katsi’l, less than a mile below the present Katsi’l Reservation.
- Ke’ti’, on the site of the present Princeton. Koru’, in Colusa city, named from it.
- Kukui, one and a half miles below Koru’.
- Sôma, 2 miles below modern Katsi’l, somewhat off the river, and not certainly an independent unit.
- Tatno, perhaps 2 miles above Colusa.
- Ts’a`, 3 miles below Princeton.
Wa’itere, 2 or 3 miles above the present Katsi’l, or “Colusa rancheria.”
- Ko’doi(-dihi), a mile below Sāka, on the J. Brown place.
- Kusêmpu, on the east side of Sacramento River, perhaps a mile below No’matsapin.
- Lo’klokma-ti’nbe, in the southern outskirts of Grimes.
- No’matsapin, about 5 miles downstream from Sāka.
- Nōwi(-dihi), 1 mile below Lo’klokma-ti’nbe.
- P’ālo, 1 or 2 miles downstream from Tsaki, some 3 miles above Kirkville.
- Sāka, little more than 100 yards from last, at Eddy’s Ferry.
- Tsaki, 7 or 8 miles below Sāka.
- T’inik(-dihi), on the east side about opposite Ko’doi, status uncertain.
- Yali, opposite Sāka, on east bank.
Knight’s Landing Dialect (only ones remembered) :
- Hololum (?), between Kirkville and Knight’s Landing.
- Yo’doi, at Knight’s Landing giving name to Yolo.
Hill Patwin (from south to north):
- South of Cache no names of tribelets are known but villages called Suskol, Tuluka, Ula-to, Topai-dihi, and Liwai-to.
- On Lower Cache Creek Barrett places Pulupulu, Churup, Kachituli, also Moso (at Capay).
- C. H. Merriam (1929) gives Kopā’ (Kope) (in the broad fiat part of Capay Valley near Brooks), and Kroeber (1932) Hacha (3 miles below Capay).
- Kisi, a village upstream on Cache Creek, may have been a tribal center.
- Imil, a village apparently in a tribal territory (near Guinda), and Sūya, a village (half a mile north of Guinda), besides 16 inhabited sites mentioned by one informant.
- Lops and Tebti (on or near Cache Creek), villages probably belonging to a tribelet.
- Sukui-sel, whose principal village was Sukui (2-3 miles above Sulphur Creek).
- Kuikui, a village was Sukui (2-3 miles above Sulphur Creek).
- Kuikui, a village (on Cache Creek 2 miles below the mouth of Bartlett), and Opi, a village (on Cache Creek at the mouth of Bartlett), probably in a tribelet.
- Tebti-sel, including the villages of Tebti (on Bartlett Creek at the mouth of Long Valley Creek), and Helu’supet or Helu’sapet (downstream within 2 or 3 miles of Cache Creek).
- Lol-sel, located at village of A’li-ma-ti’nbe (some 5 miles up Long Valley Creek).
- Loll (either on Bartlett Creek 3 miles from Tebti or in Indian Valley) was a village in an unnamed tribelet.
- Wor-pa’ntibe, one of whose villages was Wa’i-taluk (in Morgan Valley south of Cache Creek).
- Tsuhel-mem or Chuhel-mem, a village on Indian Creek above Ladoga and Kabal-mem or Kabel-mem, a later village.
- A tribelet called Edī’ or Edī’la.
- A tribelet with villages at Bahka(labe) (not far from the mouth of Indian Creek).
- Kula’(-la) (some miles up), and Dikikala’i (downstream from Bahka).
- Yakut (on Sand Creek), perhaps a tribelet by itself.
- Wa’ikau-sel, with villages at Let(-labe) (near Cortina Creek).
- Wa’ikau (on main Cortina Creek), and perhaps Kotu (13. or 2 miles upstream from Wa’ikau).
- A tribelet at Pone (on Grapevine Canyon or Road, three or more miles north of Sites).
- Potba-sel, or a village called Potba(-labe), (at a spring in a gulley half a dozen miles north of the last.