The Halchidhoma belonged to the Yuman branch of the Hokan linguistic stock and are said to have spoken the same language as the Yuma tribe and to have been closely connected also with the Maricopa.
Halchidhoma Indians. Significance unknown.
Location. At various points on the Colorado River near the mouth of the Gila.
- Asumpción, a group of villages on or near the Colorado River, in California, more than 50 miles below the mouth of Bill Williams Fork.
- Lagrimas de San Pedro, a group of villages in the neighborhood of Asumpción.
- San Antonio, in the same general location as Lagrimas but only 35 or 40 miles below the mouth of Bill Williams Fork.
- Santa Coleta, a group of villages in the same region as Asumpci6n and Lagrimas de San Pedro.
History. The Halchidhoma were probably encountered by Alarcon in 1540, though he does not mention them.
In 1604-5 Orate found them occupying eight villages on the Colorado below the mouth of the Gila; Father Eusebio Kino in 1701-2 came upon them above the Gila, and by Garces’ time (1776) their villages were scattered on both sides of the Colorado, beginning about 38 miles below Bill Williams’ Fork and extending the same distance downstream.
Later they moved farther north, along with the Kohuana, but were soon forced downstream again by the Mohave and ultimately took refuge with the Maricopa on Gila River, by whom they were ultimately absorbed.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates 3,000 in 1680, but this is evidently based on Garces’ figure of 2,500 in 1776, which Kroeber (1920) believes much too high. Kroeber suggests about 1,000 as of the year 1770.