Tribal Timelines

Tribal Timelines


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Abenaki Timeline

The Abenaki were a woodland hunter/ farmer confederacy who’s tradition states that they migrated from the Southwest. They ranged throughout southwestern Maine into Vermont and New Hampshire. Early contact was with the British, but the tribe was missionized and allied with the French. They ranged throughout southwestern Maine into Vermont and New Hampshire. Early contact was with the British, but the tribe was missionized and allied with the French.


A large Abenaki Confederation was formed as early as 1679 as a military organization resulting in the tribe participating in numerous conflicts on both the side of the French and British and suffering great losses over the years. The only recognized Abenaki reside in Quebec though most of the tribe live in Vermont.

A large Abenaki Confedereation was formed as early as 1679 as a military organization resulting in the tribe participating in numerous conflicts on both sides of the French and British wars and suffering great losses over the years.

The only recognized Abenaki tribe resides in Quebec, Canada though most of the tribe live in Vermont state in the United States today.

Year History
1497 European fishing boats soon began fishing at Grand Bank off of the coast of Maine soon after the visit of Sebastian Cabot
1524 Giovanni da Verrazano also explored the area
1607 Unsuccessful attempt by the Plymouth Company to establish a colony on the Kennebec River
1614 Captain James Smith met Abenaki when he explored and mapped the coast of northern New England
1616 Epidemic
1619 Epidemic (75% depopulation over two epidemics)
1628 Mohawk attacked Western Abenaki
1633 Smallpox epidemic
1637 Abenaki received first firearms
1646 Beginning of French trading missions to the Abenaki
1647 Eastern Abenaki attacked by Mohawk
1650 Mohawk once again began attacking Western Abenaki and other Algonquian tribes
1675 Few Abenaki participated in King Philip’s War
1676 Many Abenaki retreated to Quebec
1679 Abenaki returned to Maine
1688 Outbreak of war between Britain and France; Abenaki turned on New England colonists
1699 Abenaki promised to remain neutral by treaty
1701 Queen Ann’s War; Abenaki raids resumed
1726 War in Maine ended with defeat of Eastern Abenaki and a peace treaty; Canadian Abenaki at Wolinak and St. Francois to agreed to peace with New England
1727 Grey Lock was absent from the treaty signed at Montreal but a long peace soon ensued
1730 Smallpox epidemic forced the abandonment of Missisquoi
1731 Missisquoi reoccupied
1744 King George’s War (1744-48) between Britain and France, peace ended, Abenaki and Sokoki supported the French, the Cowasuck and Eastern Abenaki removed toward Canada, a few St. Francois and Pigwacket found refuge near Boston with the English
1746 At least 35 Abenaki and Sokoki war parties attacked the frontier
1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; complete peace took two or more years
1750 Pigwacket disappear from record
1754 The murder of two of Abenaki hunters by New Englanders brought retaliatory raids against the New England
1755 French and Indian War (1755-63)
1757 Abenaki and Sokoki warriors participated in Montcalm’s campaign in northern New York
1759 Rangers commanded by Major Robert Rogers attacked and burned St. Francois, 30 probably killed though 200 claimed
1761 Abenaki scattered in small groups as settlers claimed their land
1776 St. Francois were divided but some helped the Americans attack Boston and provided guides for Benedict Arnold’s failed expedition against Quebec
1781 Some Abenaki served with the British and raided Maine’s Androscoggin Valley
1812 War of 1812, last conflict participated in by the Abenaki on British side
Absaroka (Crow) Timeline
The Crow (ABSAROKE OR ABSALOOKE)  were sedentary hunter/farmers until they separated from the Hidatsa in two groups about A.D. 1400 and 1600.  Upon separation, they became nomadic hunter/gatherers of the northern Plains.  In historic times, they ranged from the valley of the Yellowstone in southern Montana south as far as the Laramie fork of the Platte in Wyoming.  They were constantly in conflict with most of their neighbors and severely outnumbered. Here is a timeline of important events in their history.
They allied with the United States against their mutual enemies, but were never recognized for their sacrafices.

The Mountain Crow were in southern Montana and northern Wyoming, while the River Crow lived among the Hidatsa in North Dakota. Today, they live on the Crow Reservation, whose tribal offices are in Crow Agency, Montana.

Year History
1400 Oral tradition:  The ancestral tribe of the Crow and the Hidatsa were living the “Land of Forests and many lakes”  ( The present upper Great Lakes of Canada and the United States)
1450 Oral tradition:  Two leaders of this group, No Intestines and Red Scout, fasted at Holy lake (present day Devils Lake, North Dakota),  Red Scout received a vision indicating that his people would survive through the spiritual graces of Sacred Tobacco.  Red Scout and his people settled on the Missouri and learned horticulture from the Mandan, eventually becoming the contemporary Hidatsa’s.  No Intestines and his followers traveled on an extensive migration in search of the Sacred Tobacco.  The trek eventually led them to their historic homeland, present-day southeastern Montana and northern Wyoming.  This group became known as the Ashalahó/Many Lodges or the historic Mountain Crow
1490 Oral tradition:  The Mountain Crow were firmly established in their homeland, displacing the Shoshones and allying themselves with the resident Kiowa’s
1600 Oral tradition:  The next band of the Crow developed out of a separation from the Hidatsa.  Sometime after No Intestines group had become established on the Plains and argument arose between two factions in the Hidatsa villages on the Missouri River.  The quarrel was over the distribution of a drowned buffalo, the wife of the leader Bad Heart Bear felt that she had not received enough of the tripe.  The ensuing dispute led to a permanent separation when the followers of Bad Heart Bear joined the Ashalahó Apsáalooke on the Plains.  This group became known as the Binnéassiippeele/Those Who Live Amongst The River Banks, or the historic River Crow.
1700 Oral tradition:  The Apsáalooke acquired their first horses from a Shoshone camp near the Great Salt Lake.
1743 A group of Apsáalooke camped at the confluence of the Bighorn and Little Bighorn Rivers meet with the La Vérendrye Brothers, French-Canadian traders, most likely the first encounter between the Apsáalooke and the Europeans
1805 Lewis and Clark Expedition travels across Apsáalooke territory
1805 On their return trip in 1806, the horses meant for Clark, being held by his sergeant, Nathaniel Pryor, are taken by Crow warriors 
1824 Beginning of mountain man fur trade era
1825 The first treaty between the Crow and the United States is signed by Crow leader Long Hair and Major O’Fallon of the United States.  The other prominent Crow leader Rotten Belly refused to sign
1830 Female warrior Pine Leaf killed four Blackfeet at Fort Union and was named Woman Chief by Rotten Belly
1833 Killed more than 200 Cheyenne in revenge battle; contracted smallpox from a wagon train
1840 The Crow were afflicted smallpox epidemic, end of mountain man fur trade era
1846 Attacked and virtually destroyed the Small Robes band of Piegan Blackfeet under Chief Rotten Belly
1848 Caught smallpox from Northern Shoshoni tribe
1849 Lost 600 to influenza
1851 The Crow participated in the first Ft. Laramie Treaty signed by Chief Big Robber which stated that the Crow controlled over 33 million acres of land in present-day Montana and Wyoming, caught smallpox from Northern Shoshoni
1853 Indian agent estimated that Crow owned 20 horses per adult male
1856 Woman Chief killed by Gros Ventre
1864 The outnumbered Crow successfully defended themselves against the combined forces of the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho on East Pryor Creek north of present-day Pryor, Montana, the largest and most dramatic battle to protect eastern Crow lands from the Lakota invasion of the 1860’s
1865 The Crow assisted the United States military in protecting travelers on the Bozeman Trail, three forts were established in Crow territory.
1866 Chief Big Robber killed in duel with Northern Shoshoni Chief Washakie in Battle of Crowheart Butte
1868 The Crow participated in the second Ft. Laramie Treaty, and their land holdings were reduced to 8 million acres in present-day Montana
1869 The first government agency is established for the Crow on Hide Scraper Creek (present-day Mission Creek, Montana)
1872 Crow land holdings were reduced again and the government agency is moved to present-day Absarokee, Montana
1876 The Crow continued to support the United States military by supplying the scouts to the columns of the Centennial Campaign
1877 The Crow repelled constant attacks against the invading Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho, with and without the assistance of the United States military, even pursuing the fleeing Lakota’s into Canada
1882 The Crow agreed to another land cession and the government agency is moved to its present site at Crow Agency, Montana
1887 Aided Nez Perce in flight to Canada
1950 Water rights to Yellowtail Dam lost by tribe
1983 Crows win inherent sovereignty case in Supreme Court
Acolapissa Timeline

The Acolapissa were Choctaw speaking hunter/farmers of the lower Mississippi River in Louisiana.  They occupied the Natchitoches for some time, having a battle upon their separation.  After decimation by a smallpox epidemic, and having suffered a slaving raid by the British and Chickasaw, this tribe allied with the French. 

They ultimately confederated with the Houma and followed their fortunes. Eventually, the remaining Acolapissa were absorbed into the Houma tribe in Louisiana.

Year History
1697 Smallpox epidemic
1698 Encountered d’Bienville, Acolapissa had just been in battle with British and Chickasaw (slaving raid)
1701 Acolapissa sold by Virginians as slaves for the Carribbean Islands
1702 Had suffered population losses due to previous epidemic, removed from Pearl River to Lake Ponchartrain, joined by Natchitoches
1714 Battle with Natchitoches causing separation
1718 Moved across Mississippi River to near New Orleans
1739 Joined Houma and followed their fortunes
Alcohol Prohibition timeline
Assiniboine and Gros Ventre Tribes and Fort Belknap Reservation Timeline
Aztec history overview and timeline
Blackfeet tribe timeline
Cahuilla Timeline
Catawba Timeline
Cayuga Timeline
Chippewa and Cree Tribes and Rocky’s Boy Reservation Timeline
Chippewa Timeline
Choctaw History Timeline
Comanche Timeline 1500 to Present
Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe and Flathead Reservation timeline
Crow Tribal Timeline
European Explorers and US Government Timeline 1492-1999
Great Basin Region Timeline
Indian Wars Timeline 1500s to 1700s
Indian Wars Timeline 1800 to 1854
Indian Wars Timeline 1855 to 1865
Indian Wars Timeline 1866-1898
Kickapoo Indians Timeline
Kumeyaay Timeline (10000 BC-2001)
Lenape Tribe Timeline
Major Indian Wars Timeline
Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe Timeline
Mohican History Timeline
Northern Cheyenne Tribe Timeline
Odawa Timeline
Omaha Tribe of Nebraska Timeline
Pit River Indians Timeline
Pit River Tribe Historical Timeline
Pre-Columbian Cultures in North America Timeline
Russell Means Timeline
Sioux & Assiniboine Tribes and Fort Peck Reservation Timeline
Sioux Nation History Timeline
Three Affiliated Tribes Timeline
Timeline of US Indian Massacres
Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Timeline
Yakama Nation History Timeline