The Winnebago Indian Reservation lies primarily in the northern part of Thurston and a small part of Dixon counties in northeastern Nebraska, with an additional portion in Woodbury County, Iowa. There is also a small plot of off-reservation land of 116.75 acres (0.4725 km2) in southern Craig Township in Burt County, Nebraska. The total land area is 457.857 km² (176.78 sq mi).
The Winnebago Indian Reservation is the home of the Ho-Chunk Indians, formerly known as the Winnebago Indian tribe.
They also call themselves Hochungra – “People of the Parent Speech”, which resembles the Ho-Chunk of the Nebraska branch of the Winnebago.
The Iowa portion was originally west of the Missouri River and within Nebraska boundaries. But, after the United States Army Corps of Engineers changed the course of the river, some of the reservation land was redefined as falling within the boundaries of Iowa. The tribe successfully argued that the land belonged to them under the terms of the deed prior to diversion of the river. This land has a postal address of Sloan, Iowa, as rural addresses are normally covered by the nearest post office.
The 2000 census reported a population of 2,588 persons living on these lands. The largest community is the village of Winnebago, with other communities in Emerson and Thurston, Nebraska.
In 2006 their enrolled population was estimated at 4,000