The federally recognized Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is the only federally recognized tribe in the state of North Carolina.
The Eastern Cherokee are those Cherokee people who remained on their traditional homelands when most of the Cherokee were forcibly relocated to Oklahoma on the infamous Trail of Tears.
Official Tribal Name: Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians
Address: P. O. Box 455, Cherokee, NC 28719
Email: [email protected]
Official Website: http://nc-cherokee.com/
Recognition Status: Federally Recognized
Traditional Name / Traditional Meaning:
Aniyunwiya – Principal people
Tsalagi – The spelling and pronunciation of Cherokee in the Cherokee language.
Common Name: Cherokee
Meaning of Common Name:
Cherokee – from a Muskogee Indian word for “speakers of another language.”
Alternate names: Formerly Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina
Alternate spellings / Misspellings: Ani’-Yun’wiya, Tsalagia, Keetoowah
Name in other languages:
Allegheny (or Allegewi, Talligewi) used by the Delaware people
Baniatho used by the Arapaho People
Caáxi (or Cayaki) used by the Osage people
Chalaque used by the Spanish people
Chilukki (dog people) used by the Choctaw and Chickasaw people
Entarironnen (mountain people) used by the Huron people
Gatohuá used by the Muscogee (Creek) people
Kittuwa (or Katowá) used by the Algonquin people
Matera (or Manteran) (coming out of the ground) used by the Catawba people
Nation du Chien used by the French people
Ochietarironnon used by the Wyandot people
Oyatageronon (or Oyaudah, Uwatayoronon) (cave people) used by the Iroquois people
Shanaki used by the Caddo people
Shannakiak used by the Fox people
Tcaike used by the Tonkawa people
- Tcerokieco used by the Wichita people.
State(s) Today: North Carolina
Traditional Territory: Their first village site is the Kituwah Mound in Swain County, in central North Carolina.
- Treaty of November 28, 1785 – Treaty with the Cherokee
- Treaty of July 2, 1791- Treaty of Holston
- Treaty of June 26, 1794 – Treaty of Philladelphia
- Treaty of October 2, 1798 – 1798 Treaty of Tellico
- Treaty of October 24, 1804 – 1804 Tellico Treaty
- Treaty of October 25, 1805 – 1805 Tellico Treaty
- Treaty of October 27, 1805 – 1805 Tellico Treaty 2
- Treaty of January 7, 1806 – 1806 Washington Treaty
- Elucidation of a Convention, September 11, 1807
- Treaty of September 8, 1815
- Treaty of March 22, 1816
- Second Treaty of March 22, 1816
- 1816 Washington Treaty, April 8, 1816
- 1816 Washington Treaty 2, April 8, 1816
- Treaty of September 14, 1816
- 1816 Turkey Town Treaty, October 4, 1816
- Treaty of July 8, 1817 – 1817 Treaty with the Cherokee
- Reservation Roll of 1817
- Understanding the Reservation Roll
- Treaty of February 27, 1819 – 1819 Treaty with the Cherokee
- 1828 Treaty with the Western Cherokee
- Disbursements to Cherokees under the Treaty of May 6, 1828
- Improvements to Annexed Cherokee Lands
- Treaty of February 14, 1833
- Agreement of March 14, 1835
- Treaty of August 24, 1835
- Treaty of December 29, 1835 – a.k.a. Treaty of New Echota. It was signed in 1835 by a small faction of Cherokees who favored relocation. Many thousands of Cherokee refused to abandon their homes and were forced to leave on foot by the US Army. This march, known as the Trail of Tears, took three to five months during 1838. It was estimated that 13,000 Cherokee started this journey and that at least one-fourth died of hunger and exhaustion. Approximately 1,000 Cherokee escaped the Trail of Tears by hiding and were eventually granted land in western North Carolina. They are now known as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians.
- 1833 Fort Gibson Treaty with the Western Cherokee
- Treaty of August 6, 1846
- Agreement of September 13, 1865
- Treaty of July 19, 1866
- Treaty of April 27, 1868
Reservation: The Eastern Cherokee Reservation, also known as Qualla Boundary, lies adjacent to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The Qualla Boundary includes the town of Cherokee, as well as several other communities. 60% of tribal members live on the reservation.
Land Area: 56,000 acres
Tribal Headquarters: Cherokee, North Carolina
Time Zone: Eastern
Population at Contact:
In 1708 Gov. Johnson estimated the Cherokee at 60 villages and “at least 500 men.” In 1715 they were officially reported to number 11,210 (Upper, 2,760; Middle, 6,350; Lower, 2,100), including 4,000 warriors, and living in 60 villages (Upper, 19; Middle, 30; Lower, 11).
In 1720 were estimated to have been reduced to about 10,000, and again in the same year reported at about 11,500, including about 3,800 warriors. In 1729 they were estimated at 20,000, with at least 6,000 warriors and 64 towns and villages.
An estimate in 1730 placed the Cherokee at about 20,000. By 1758 they were computed at only 7,500. The majority of the earlier estimates are probably too low, as the Cherokee occupied so extensive a territory that only a part of them came in contact with the whites.
Those in their original homes had again increased to 16,542 at the time of their forced removal to the west in 1838, but they lost nearly one-fourth on the journey, 311 perishing in a steamboat accident on the Mississippi. Those already in the west, before the removal, were estimated at about 6,000.
The civil war in 1861-65 again checked their progress, but they recovered from its effects in a remarkably short time, and in 1885 numbered about 19,000, of whom about 17,000 were in Indian Territory, together with about 6,000 adopted whites, blacks, Delawares, and Shawnee, while the remaining 2,000 were still in their ancient homes in the east.
Of this eastern band, 1,376 were on Qualla reservation, in Swain and Jackson Counties, North Carolina; about 300 on the Cheowah River, in Graham County, North Carolina, while the remainder, all of mixed blood, were scattered over east Tennessee, north Georgia, and Alabama.
The eastern band lost about 300 by smallpox at the close of the civil war. In 1902 there were officially reported 28,016 persons of Cherokee blood, including all degrees of admixture, in the Cherokee Nation in the Territory, but this includes several thousand individuals formerly repudiated by the tribal courts.
There were also living in the nation about 3,000 adopted black freedmen, more than 2,000 adopted whites, and about 1700 adopted Delaware, Shawnee, and other Indians. The tribe has a larger proportion of white admixture than any other of the Five Civilized Tribes.
Registered Population Today: About 13,000 enrolled members. About 11,600 Eastern Band of Cherokee members live on the Reservation.
Tribal Enrollment Requirements: Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Enrollment Requirements
Name of Governing Body:
Number of Council members:
Dates of Constitutional amendments:
Number of Executive Officers:
The Cherokee language has three principal dialects:
- Elatĭ, or Lower, spoken on the heads of Savannah River, in South Carolina and Georgia. The lower dialect was the only one which had the r sound, and is now extinct.
- Middle, spoken chiefly on the waters of Tuckasegee River, in western North Carolina, and now the prevailing dialect on the East Cherokee reservation;
- A´tăli, Mountain or Upper, spoken throughout most of upper Georgia, east Tennessee, and extreme western North Carolina. The upper dialect is that which has been exclusively used in the native literature of the tribe.
Number of fluent Speakers
Origins: 4,000 years ago, ancestors of the Cherokee migrated from the American southwest to the Great Lakes region. After wars with the Delaware and Iroquois tribes of that area, the Cherokee made a permanent home in the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and in South Carolina’s foothills.
- Cherokee Nation (F)
- Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama (S)
- United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma (F)
- Also see: State and Un-Recognized Cherokee Tribes for a list of 348 state recognized or unrecognized Cherokee tribes.
Ceremonies / Dances:
Modern Day Events & Tourism: Cherokee Pow Wows
Art & Crafts:
Clothing: Cherokee Indians preferred European clothes once they were introduced, unlike the Plains Indians depicted in western movies.
Adornment: The Cherokee wore turbans to cover their heads.
Housing: The Cherokee lived in log cabins.
Subsistance: The Cherokee lived primarily in one place and were farmers even before Europeans arrived. They grew tobacco, corn, squash and beans as their principle crops. Cherokee people also hunted deer and small game and gathered medicines, roots and berries.
Economy Today: Harrah’s Cherokee Casino and Hotel is one of Cherokee’s largest employers. Outdoor tourism in their scenic area is also prominent. There is a living history village and museum on the reservation.
Religion & Spiritual Beliefs:
They are said to have lost 1,000 warriors in 1739 from smallpox and rum, and they suffered a steady decrease during their wars with the whites, extending from 1760 until after the close of the Revolution.
The Trail of Tears during the winter of 1831 forced 13,000 Cherokee to march to Oklahoma on foot in the dead of winter. Approximately one quarter died on the way.
Traditional, linguistic, and archeological evidence shows that the Cherokee originated in the north, but they were found in possession of the south Allegheny region when first encountered by De Soto in 1540. Their relations with the Carolina colonies began 150 years later.
First contact with white traders working in the Appalachian Mountains was made in the 1600s. The Cherokee traded deerskins for hammers, saws, other metal tools, glass, cloth, and firearms.
The Cherokee fought 1689-1763 in the French and Indian Wars because of their alliances with the British.
In 1736 the Jesuit (?) Priber started the first mission among them, and attempted to organize their government on a civilized basis. In 1759, under the leadership of A´ganstâ´ta (Oconostota), they began war with the English of Carolina. In the Revolution they took sides against the Americans, and continued the struggle almost without interval until 1794.
During this period parties of the Cherokee pushed down the Tennessee River and formed new settlements at Chickamauga and other points about what is now the Tennessee-Alabama line.
Shortly after 1800, missionary and educational work was established among them, and in 1820 they adopted a regular form of government modeled on that of the United States. In the meantime large numbers of the more conservative Cherokee, wearied by the encroachments of the whites, had crossed the Mississippi and made new homes in the wilderness in what is now Arkansas.
In 1821, Sequoya, a mixed-blood, invented the alphabet, which at once raised them to the rank of a literary people.
At the height of their prosperity gold was discovered near present day Dahlonega, Georgia, within the limits of the Cherokee Nation, and at once a powerful agitation was begun for the removal of the Indians.
After years of hopeless struggle under the leadership of their great chief, John Ross, they were compelled to submit to the inevitable, and by the treaty of New Echota, Dec. 29, 1835, the Cherokee sold their entire remaining territory and agreed to remove beyond the Mississippi to a country there to be set apart for them-the present (1890) Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory.
The removal was accomplished in the winter of 1838-39, after considerable hardship and the loss of nearly one-fourth of their number, the unwilling Indians being driven out by military force and making the long journey on foot.
On reaching their destination they reorganized their national government, with their capital at Tahlequah, admitting to equal privileges the earlier emigrants, known as “old settlers.”
A part of the Arkansas Cherokee had previously gone down into Texas, where they had obtained a grant of land in the east part of the state from the Mexican government.
The later Texan revolutionists refused to recognize their rights, and in spite of the efforts of Gen. Sam Houston, who defended the Indian claim, a conflict was precipitated, resulting, in 1839, in the killing of the Cherokee chief, Bowl, with a large number of his men, by the Texan troops, and the expulsion of the Cherokee from Texas.
When the main body of the tribe was removed to the west, several hundred fugitives escaped to the mountains, where they lived as refugees for a time, until, in 1842, through the efforts of William H. Thomas, an influential trader, they received permission to remain on lands set apart for their use in western North Carolina.
Their descendants are the present Eastern Band of Cherokee, residing chiefly on the Qualla reservation in Swain and Jackson counties, with several outlying settlements.
The Cherokee in the Cherokee Nation were for years divided into two hostile factions, those who had favored and those who had opposed the treaty of removal.
Then the Civil War began. Being slave owners and surrounded by southern influences, a large part of each of the Five Civilized Tribes of the territory enlisted in the service of the Confederacy, while others adhered to the National Government.
The territory of the Cherokee was overrun by both armies. By treaty in 1866 they were readmitted to the protection of the United States, but obliged to liberate their black slaves and admit them to equal citizenship.
In 1867 and 1870 the Delawares and Shawnee, respectively, numbering together about 1,750, were admitted from Kansas and incorporated with the Cherokee Nation.
In 1889 a Cherokee Commission was created for the purpose of abolishing the tribal governments and opening the territories to white settlement, with the result that after 15 years of negotiation an agreement was made by which the government of the Cherokee Nation came to a final end March 3, 1906.
The Indian lands were divided, and the Cherokee Indians and native adopted became citizens of the United States.
Today the combined Cherokee tribes are presently the largest nation of Native Americans in the United States.
The Cherokee War of 1839
In the News:
Eastern Band Of Cherokees: 1819-1900
The Eastern Band of Cherokees in the Twentieth Century
A Guide for Tracing and Honoring Your Cherokee Ancestors
Signs of Cherokee Culture: Sequoyah’s Syllabary in Eastern Cherokee Life