This is the full text and signees of a treaty made at the Lower Mandan Village on July 30, 1825. Among other terms, it set down rules to regulate trade with Indian tribes, particularly, the selling of guns.
1825 Treaty with the Belantse-Etoa or Minitaree Tribe
WHEREAS acts of hostility have been committed, by some restless men of the Belantse-etea or Minnetaree tribe of Indians, upon some of the citazens of the United States: therefore, to put a stop to any further outrages of the sort, and to establish a more friendly understanding between the United States and the said Belantse-etea or Minnetaree tribe, the President of the United States, by Henry Atkinson, Brigadier-general of the United States’ army, and Major Benjamin O’Fallon, Indian Agent, commissioners duly appointed and commissioned to treat with the Indian tribes beyond the Mississippi river, forgive the offences which have been committed, the Chiefs and Warriors having first made satisfactory explanations touching the same.
And, for the purpose of removing all future cause of misunderstanding, as respects trade and friendly intercourse, between the parties, the above-named Commissioners, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs and Warriors of the Belantse-etea or Minnetaree tribe of Indians, on the part of said tribe, have made and entered into the following Articles and Conditions; which, when ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall be binding on both parties—to wit:
Henceforth there shall be a firm and lasting peace between the United States and the Belantse-etea or Minnetaree tribe of Indians; and a friendly intercourse shall immediately take place between the parties.
It is admitted by the Belantse-etea or Minnetaree tribe of Indians, that they reside within the territorial limits of the United States, acknowledge their supremacy, and claim their protection.—The said tribe also admit the right of the United States to regulate all trade and intercourse with them.
The United States agree to receive the Belantse-etea or Minnetaree tribe of Indians into their friendship, and under their protection, and to extend to them, from time to time, such benefits and acts of kindness as may be convenient, and seem just and proper to the President of the United States.
All trade and intercourse with the Belantse-eta or Minnetaree tribe shall be transacted at such place or places as may be designated and pointed out, by the President of the United States, through his agents; and none but American citazens, duly authorized by the United States, shall be admitted to trade or hold intercourse with said tribe of Indians.
That the Belantse-eta or Minnetaree tribe may be accommodated with such articles of merchandise, &c., as their necessities may demand, the United States agree to admit and license traders to hold intercourse with said tribe, under mild and equitable regulations: in consideration of which, the Belantse-eta or Minnetaree tribe bind themselves to extend protection to the persons and the property of the traders, and the persons legally employed under them, whilst they remain within the limits of their district of country.
And the said Belantse-eta or Minnetaree tribe further agree, that if any foreigner or other person, not legally authorized by the United States, shall come into their district of country, for the purposes of trade or other views, they will apprehend such person or persons, and deliver him or them to some United States’ superintendent or agent of Indian affairs, or to the commandant of the nearest military post, to be dealt with according to law.
And they further agree to give safe conduct to all persons who may be legally authorized by the United States to reside temporarily among them.
That the friendship which is now established between the United States and the Belantse-eta or Minnetaree tribe shall not be interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, it is hereby agreed, that for injuries done by individuals, no private revenge or retaliation shall take place, but instead thereof complaints shall be made, by the party injured, to the superintendent or agent of Indian affairs or other person appointed by the President; and it shall be the duty of the said Chiefs, upon complaint being made as aforesaid, to deliver up the person or persons against whom the complaint is made, to the end that he or they may be punished, agreeably to the laws of the United States. And, in like manner, if any robbery, violence, or murder, shall be committed on any Indian or Indians belonging to said tribe, the person or persons so offending shall be tried, and if found guilty, shall be punished in like manner as if the injury had been done to a white man.
And it is agreed that the Chiefs of the said Belantse-eta or Minnetaree tribe shall, to the utmost of their power, exert themselves to recover horses or other property, which may be stolen or taken from any citizen or citizens of the United States, by any individual or individuals of said tribe; and the property so recovered shall be forthwith delivered to the agents or other person authorized to receive it, that it may be restored to the proper owner. And the United States hereby guarranty to any Indian or Indians of said tribe, a full indemnification for any horses or other property which may be stolen from them by any of their citizens: Provided, That the property so stolen cannot be recovered, and that sufficient proof is produced that it was actually stolen by a citizen of the United States.
And the said Belantse-eta or Minnetaree tribe engage, on the requisition or demand of the President of the United States, or of the agents, to deliver up any white man resident among them.
And the Chiefs and Warriors, as aforesaid, promise and engage that their tribe will never, by sale, exchange, or as presents, supply any nation, tribe, or band of Indians, not in amity with the United States, with guns, ammunition, or other implements of war.
Done at the Lower Mandan Village, this thirtieth day of July, A. D. 1825, and of the independence of the United States the fiftieth.
In testimony whereof, the commissioners, Henry Atkinson and Benjamin O’Fallon, and the chiefs and warriors of the said Belantse-etea or Minnetaree tribe of Indians, have hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals.
H. Atkinson, brigadier-general U. S. Army, [L. S.]
Benj. O’Fallon, United States agent, Indian affairs, [L. S.]
Shan-sa-bat-say-e-see, the wolf chief, his x mark, [L. S.]
E-re-ah-ree, the one that make the road, his x mark, [L. S.]
Pas-ca-ma-e-ke-ree, the crow that looks, his x mark, [L. S.]
E-tah-me-nah-ga-e-she, the guard of the red arrows, his x mark, [L. S.]
Mah-shu-ca-lah-pah-see, the dog bear, his x mark, [L. S.]
Oh-sha-lah-ska-a-tee, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kah-re-pe-shu-pe-sha, the black buffalo, his x mark, [L. S.]
Ah-too-pah-she-pe-sha, the black mocasins, his x mark, [L. S.]
Mah-buk-sho-ok-oe-ah, the one that carries the snake, his x mark, [L. S.]
At-ca-chis, the black lodges, his x mark, [L. S.]
Nah-rah-ah-a-pa, the color of the hair, his x mark, [L. S.]
Pa-ta-e-she-as, the wicked cow, his x mark, [L. S.]
Kee-re-pee-ah-too, the buffalo head, his x mark, [L. S.]
Lah-pa-ta-see-e-ta, the bear’s tail, his x mark, [L. S.]
Pa-ta-lah-kee, the white cow, his x mark, [L. S.]
Ah-sha-re-te-ah, the big thief, his x mark, [L. S.]
Bo-sah-nah-a-me, the three wolves, his x mark, [L. S.]
San-jah-oe-tee, the wolf that has no tail, his x mark, [L. S.]
Sa-ga-e-ree-shus, the finger that stinks, his x mark, [L. S.]
Me-a-cah-ho-ka, the woman that lies, his x mark, [L. S.]
Ah-mah-a-ta, the missouri, his x mark, [L. S.]
E-sha-kee-te-ah, the big fingers, his x mark, [L. S.]
Mah-shu-kah-e-te-ah, the big dog, his x mark, [L. S.]
Be-ra-ka-ra-ah, the rotten wood, his x mark, [L. S.]
E-ta-ro-sha-pa, the big brother, his x mark, [L. S.]
In the presence of—
A. L. Langham, secretary to the commission,
H. Leavenworth, colonel, U. S. Army,
G. H. Kennerly, United States sub-Indian agent,
John Gale, surgeon, U. S. Army,
D. Ketchum, major, U. S. Army,
John Gantt, captain, Sixth Infantry,
Wm. Day, lieutenant, First Infantry,
R. B. Mason, captain, First Infantry,
Jas. W. Kingbury, lieutenant, First Regiment Infantry,
R. Holmes, lieutenant, Sixth Infantry,
J. Rogers, lieutenant, Sixth Infantry,
W. S. Harney, lieutenant, First Infantry,
Levi Nute, lieutenant, Sixth Infantry,
B. Riley, captain, Sixth Infantry,
R. M. Coleman, assistant surgeon, U. S. Army,
George C. Hutter, lieutenant, Sixth Infantry,
P. Wilson, United States sub-Indian agent,
Touissant Chaboneau, interpreter, his x mark,
S. W. Kearny, brevet major, First Infantry.
Wm. Armstrong, captain, Sixth Regiment Infantry.