Agreements


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Agreements

In addition to treaties, which are ratified by the US Senate and signed by the US President, there were also Acts of Congress, Executive Orders and Agreements which dealt with land agreements.

The U.S. military and representatives of a tribe, or sub unit of a tribe, signed documents which were understood at the time to be treaties, rather than armistices, ceasefires and truces.

Treaty-making between various Native American governments and the United States officially concluded on March 3, 1871 with the passing of the United States Code Title 25, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, Section 71 (25 U.S.C. § 71). Pre-existing treaties were grandfathered, and further agreements were made under domestic law.

International agreements that enter into force without the advice and consent of the Senate are often referred to generically as “executive agreements.”  Bear in mind that this generic term encompasses three distinct types of agreements:

Agreements concluded on the basis of the president's constitutional authority (executive agreements);

Agreements concluded pursuant to a statute enacted by Congress (congressional-executive agreements); and
Agreements concluded pursuant to the terms of a duly ratified treaty.

Agreements generally treated as Treaties:

Year
Date
Alternative Treaty Name
Statutes
Land Cession Reference (Royce Area)
Tribe(s)

1872
September 20
Agreement with the Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands of Sioux Indians
Rev. Stat 1050
538
Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands of Sioux

1872
September 26

18 Stat. 291
539, 540
Shoshoni

1872
October 19

N/A
540A
Wichita and affiliated bands

1873
May 2
Amended Agreement with Certain Sioux Indians
17 Stat. 456; 18 Stat. 167

Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands of Sioux

1873
September 13
Brunot Treaty
N/A
566
Colorado Ute

Year
Date
Alternative Treaty Name
Statutes
Land Cession Reference (Royce Area)
Tribe(s)

1880
March 6

21 Stat. 199
616, 617
Ute

1880
May 14

N/A

Crow

1880
May 14

N/A

Shoshoni, Bannock, and Sheep-eater

1880
June 12
Agreement with the Crows
N/A
619
Crow

1880
September 11

N/A
616, 617
Ute

1882–83

Agreement with the Sioux of Various Tribes

1883

Agreement with the Columbia and Colville

1892
October 22
McCumber Agreement, Agreement Between the Turtle Mountain Indians and the Commission
52nd-2nd-Ex.Doc.229

Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa

1902
March 10
McLaughlin Agreement, Agreement Between the Red Lake Indians and the Commission
33 Stat. 46

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