California native language groups
In 2000, according to the U.S. Census, there were 220,657 American Indians living in California, for those designating only one race, and excluding Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians in California.
California had the second-largest Native American population of any state, second only to Oklahoma.
Most of the American Indians in California are native California Indians, while many other Indians have come from other states either through relocation by the United States government or for employment purposes.
There are over 100 federally-recognized Indian tribes in California, and almost 100 Federal Indian reservations in the state, with about 40 Indian groups seeking to gain federal recognition.
Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the native peoples of California lived in all areas of the state.
There was no “empty” land, as long as that land could support human life. Nowhere else in the United States is there such a variety of cultures and languages spoken.
Athabascan FamilyOregon Group
1a. Rogue River
1b. Dakubetede Tolowa Group
1e. Chilula Matole Group
1h. Shelter Cove Sinkyone
1i. Lolangkok Sinkyone
1j. Eel River Wailaki
1k. Pitch Wailaki
1l. North Fork Wailaki
1m.KatoBear River Group
1n. Bear River
2b. Coast Yurok
Yuki–Wappo languages (Yukian Family)
4c. Coast Yuki
6b. New River Shasta
6e. Achomawi (Pit River)
6f. Atsugewi (Hat Creek)
7a. Northern Yana
7b. Central Yana
7c. Southern Yana
13c. Playano (doubtful)
14h. IslandYuman Diegueño
15a. Northern (Western) Diegueño
15b. Mountain Diegueño
15c. Southern (Eastern or Desert) Diegueño
15d. Kamia (Kumeyaay)
15f. Halchidhoma & Kohuana (now Chemehuevi)
Wintun Dialect Groups
16a. Northern (Wintu)
16b. Central (Nomlaki) Patwin
16c. Hill (Patwin)
16d. River (Patwin)Maidu Dialect Groups
17c. Southern (Nisenan)Miwok
18c. Bay (Saclan)
18d. Plains 1
8e. Northern Sierra
18f. Central Sierra
18g. Southern SierraCostanoan
19a. San Pablo (Karkin)
19b. San Francisco
19c. Santa Clara
19d. Santa Cruz
19e. San Juan Bautista (Mutsun)
19f. Rumsen (Monterey)
20a. Northern Valley (Chulamni, Chauchila, etc.)
20b. Southern Valley (Tachi, Yauelmani, etc.)
20c. Northern Hill (Chukchansi, etc.)
20d. Kings River (Chionimni, etc.)
20e. Tule-Kaweah (Yaudanchi, etc.)
20f. Poso Creek (Paleuyamni)
20g. Buena Vista (Tulamni, etc.)Modoc
Uto-Aztecan (Shoshonean) Family
Plateau Branch Mono-Bannock Group
21a. Northern Paiute (Paviotso)
21b. Owens Valley Paiute
21c. Mono Lake Paiute
21d. Monache (Western Mono) Shoshoni-Comanche Group
21e. Panamint Shoshone (Koso) Ute-Chemehuevi Group
21f, Chemehuevi (Southern Paiute)
21g. Kawaiisu (Tecachapi)Kern River Branch
21i. Kitanemuk (Tajon)
21k. Möhineyam (Vanyume)
21l. Serrano Gabrielino Group
21o. Nicholeño Luiseño-Cahuilla Group
21s. Pass Cahuilla
21t. Mountain Cahuilla
21u. Desert Cahuilla
Heizer, R.F. 1966. Languages, Territories, and Names of California Indian Tribes. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Kroeber, A.L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 78.
The Atsugewi Indians are one of the eleven bands of California Indians that make up the Pit River Tribe. They were originally located in Northeastern California, south of the Pit River in what is now Lassen County and eastern Shasta County. Atsugewi is also one of the two Palaihnihan branches of the Hokan language.
The Southern Athabaskan speakers of California lived in Northwestern California, on the coast and inland, midway between San Francisco Bay and the Oregon border (Humboldt & northern Mendocino Counties). They included the Lassik , Mattole, Nongatl, Sinkyone, and Wailaki tribes.
Here is a chart of the 88 languages indigenous to the state of California. Hypothesized MACRO-UNITS are in bold caps and italicized, FAMILIESin bold caps only, SUBGROUPS are in in small caps, individual languages in boldface, and dialects in italics: