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AUTHOR: Voices From The Circle Announcement

This week, VOICES FROM THE CIRCLE listeners can look forward to our annual Christmas program featuring Bill Miller and his heart felt “Listen To Me.”

A Millennium Tribute to The Native Peoples is a cultural and educational photo exhibit created by photographer and writer Kathy Sharp Frisbee.

From striking beaded clothing to souvenir beaded pincushions, the artistic, cultural, economic and political significance of beadwork in the lives of Iroquois people is explored in a new exhibition, titled “Across Borders: Beadwork in Iroquois Life.”

Next time on Earthsongs: Modern Music From Native America, new music from Natay, Howard Lyons, Spirit Nation and our feature artist, Lila Downs.

Feb. 6th, 2002 will mark the 26th year since Leonard’s arrest. The Leonard Peltier Defense Committee has started a new campaign for Leonard that includes a number of legal actions by Leonard’s legal defense team.

The committee that has long waged the crusade for Peltier's freedom is unveiling a restructured organization and strategic campaign.

History confirms the truth of "Man has dominated man to his injury," Ecclesiates 8:9. A reminder of this kind of suffering came in a speech by the Assisitant Secretary for Indian Affairs of the U.S. Department of the Interior.

The Legendary Richie Havens will appear in Concert on Saturday Night, November 24th at 8 PM, at the historic Provincetown Town Hall on Cape Cod.


For your information, the following statement was submitted at the World Conference Against Racism by LPDC Canada on the behalf of Leonard Peltier.

In Solidarity,


Today, I am supporting my son David A. Running Wolf Coffey in his quest for removing the Indian Mascot from Charleston County Schools and seek your support. My name is Billy W. Night Fox Coffey. I am of Shawnee descent, retired U.S. Navy and live in Goose Creek, S.C. with my wife and three children.

AUTHOR: Hannah Allam
Pioneer Press

The Sweetgrass Road Drum Group drove from Canada to the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul last month for a chance to show other young, Native American women that powwow drumming is no longer just a men's tradition.

But instead of a repeat of their well-received performance in 2000, the women were asked to leave the annual campus powwow and now claim organizers offered them money to exit quietly, according to a civil complaint against the University of St. Thomas to be filed this week in Ramsey County.

The controversy highlights a divide in Indian Country. Drumming is historically a sacred art performed only by men, though a handful of female groups recently have risked ostracism to challenge convention.

The case also places the university in the middle -- does the Catholic institution uphold state anti-discrimination laws or is this a religious matter better settled by American Indians? ...READ FULL STORY

Report Broken Link

Hector Barreto, head of the U.S. Small Business Administration in Washington, D.C., has been scheduled to speak at the 2002 Reservation Economic Summit and American Indian Business Trade Show.

The conference, with the theme, "Economic Success in Indian Country: Making It A Reality," will take place April 29 to May 2 at the Hyatt Regency in New Orleans.

It is sponsored by the National Center for American Indian Enterprise Development, which has offices in Phoenix, Los Angeles, Seattle and Atlanta. For more information, phone 800-462-2433.

The Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community's $900,000 donation is the first of its kind from an Indian tribe.

[Release date TBA]

Sherman Alexie served as writer and director of this independent film, The Business of Fancy Dancing, which was shot on digital video. It stars Evan Adams as a gay Spokane poet returning to his reservation for the funeral of a childhood friend.

The Sundance Film Festival has announced this film will be entered in the "American Spectrum" category for the 2002 festival.

AUTHOR: Native American Rights Fund (NARF) Press Release

Lare Aschenbrenner, the directing attorney of the Alaska office of the Native American Rights Fund (NARF), is taking the lead for the plaintiffs in the Alaska Inter-Tribal Council v. Alaska lawsuit.

Currently, NARF is representing ten villages, the Alaska Inter-Tribal Council and the Alaska Native Justice Center in a case against the State of Alaska, which challenges the State's inadequate provision of law enforcement to off-road Native Villages on the grounds of racial discrimination.

There are 165 off-road rural communities of which 73 have no local police at all!

The complaint alleges that the actions of the State are unlawfully prohibiting Native villages from keeping the peace in the traditional ways, which rendered them defenseless to lawbreakers, while failing to provide them even minimally adequate police protection under the State law enforcement system.

The complaint further alleges the State violated the Villages' rights to due process of law and basic law enforcement protection guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and Article I of the Alaska Constitution.

The complaint also alleges that the State's discriminatory treatment of Native villages in the provision of police protection is based on race and therefore violates the Villages' right to equal protection of the law under the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and Article I of the Alaska Constitution.

The Present Scenario

There are 165 off-road rural communities of which 73 have no local police at all. The lack of local police means:

  • There is no police presence to deter crime in the first instance.

  • Crime rates increase.

  • There is an open invitation to the illegal importation of alcohol and drugs, which are the primary factors in most crimes in the villages.

  • There is no one local to make arrests and no one to hold offenders in custody pending a court appearance.

  • There is no one to assist in incidents of domestic violence as they are occurring.

  • There is no one to make mandatory arrests, serve warrants, serve domestic violence restraining orders, and no one to enforce these orders if they are served.

The Impact of the Case

There is a critical need for police protection in rural Alaska. The role that police officers play as peace-makers and enforcers of tribal, state and federal laws is important to maintaining the safety and security of all Alaska's citizens.

Some positive results for the State and especially rural Alaskans includes:

  • Adequate police protection to a significant minority population of the State.

  • Police protection to 36 predominantly non-Native communities in Alaska.

  • Awareness, education, intervention and the prevention of incidences of maltreatment toward children.

  • Awareness, education, intervention and the prevention of domestic abuse.

  • Improved law enforcement system to deal with felony and misdemeanor crimes in rural Alaska in collaboration with state and tribal governments.

  • Focus on the improvement of the State's discriminatory policies in other areas.

  • Adequately staffed, efficient and well-trained police forces.

  • Healthier and safer communities.

On October 25, 2001, Alaska Native leaders convened with the Alaska Advisory Committee to the U.S. Civil Rights Commission to voice the
immediate problems facing their communities. At the forefront of the many issues plaguing Alaska Native communities is equal police protection.

The Legal Forecast

Oral argument on the State's motion for Summary Judgment seeking dismissal of all claims was held on December 7, 2001. Assuming this motion is denied, which we expect, trial on the merits is scheduled to commence on February 4, 2002, and is expected to last nine days.

We expect a decision on the merits next Spring or Summer. Regardless of who prevails, this case will no doubt be appealed to the Alaska Supreme Court with a decision likely in early 2003.


The Native American Rights Fund is a non-profit organization that provides legal advice and representation to Indian tribes,
individuals and organizations nationwide in the areas of the preservation of tribal existence; the protection of tribal natural resources; the promotion of human rights; the accountability of
governments to Native Americans; and the development of Indian law.

NARF is headquartered in Boulder, Colorado with offices in Washington, DC and Anchorage, Alaska.

WHEN:February 9, 2002

WHERE: University of California, Los Angeles School of Law

Keynote Speaker: Lyle Marshall, Chairman, Hoopa Valley Tribe

Do not accuse MGM of taking advantage of the current war climate to market
this film. The original release date was supposed to be June 29, 2001. The
surviving codetalkers are not getting any younger, and if the general
public is going to hear about them, it is past time.

On this Veteran's Day, as we prepare to embark on yet another war, it's
becoming increasingly clear that the aging right-wingers of yore are
determined to leave a legacy of "Dominance" to their descendants and the
world. It behooves us, we aging left-wingers, to answer their "Clarion Call"
with a call to leave a legacy of our own.

SOURCE: Victor Rocha

Just a reminder that ABC/DISNEY is still looking for Native Actors for their showcase.

So far both Fox and ABC are setting up showcases. From what I hear at SAG, the other networks are following along. This is a wonderful opportunity to develop a data base for Native Actors.

So if you haven't sent in your picture and resume, here's the address again:

Kim Hardin

Director, Talent Development Programs & Casting


Mail Code: 4394

500 South Buena Vista Street

Burbank, CA 91521-4394

818-460-7891 phone

818-460-5292 fax

The people at Fox and ABC have said that they will try to have someone attend the auditions for Native Voices at the Autry on the 16,17 and/or 18th of January.


Story lead from Victor

While the numbers reported by the Census are higher, the Census Bureau did a very poor job in counting Indians. I worked as a tribal liaison for the Census Bureau in the Los Angeles region and I saw that little than lip service was given to the Indian Census count.

AUTHOR: Rob McDonald
Spokesman Review

The Colville tribes completed a deal this week to purchase a veneer and lumber mill in Omak that closed 18 months ago. The reopening of the mill is expected to be a big boost to the Okanogan County economy, which is in dire straights.

Colville Indian Power and Veneer will bring between 70 and 120 jobs to Okanogan County, said Terry Knapton, chief operating officer of the Colville Tribal Enterprise Corp.

This article has moved to Colville Tribe buys Omak Mill in our new Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation section.

Keywords: environment global impact Dakota Minnesota and Eastern Railroad Surface Transportation Board Powder River Basin in Wyoming Great Sioux Nation Treaty land Cheyenne River Valley air pollution Pine Ridge Reservation Rosebud Reservation South Dakota Oglala people

Author: Charmaine White Face

'Nearly Universal Opposition' was one of the headlines in a newspaper describing the people's response from three states to the prospect of a railroad being rebuilt over 600 miles, and adding 280 miles of new railroad track into pristine prairie land.

From Winona on the Mississippi River in Minnesota, through the entire state of South Dakota, to remote ranches in northeastern Wyoming, the opposition to this railroad has joined doctors, lawyers, ranchers, environmentalists, and Indian chiefs into one voice.

Yet, the federal government, through two people sitting as the Surface Transportation Board, has chosen not to hear that voice.

The Dakota, Minnesota and Eastern Railroad over four years ago applied for a permit from the STB to haul coal from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming to power plants in the East. Not only is mining, hauling, and burning coal a dirty business, but other 'dirty deeds' of the DM&E include:

*building their existing and planned track on Great Sioux Nation Treaty land, which also includes the coal area currently being mined in Wyoming;

*being on the verge of bankruptcy so they decide to expand their business hoping to increase their profits;

*building their track in western South Dakota on slippery shale so it needs almost constant repair;

*planning on building in the Cheyenne River Valley, home to bald eagles, and otherthreatened or endangered species;

*having a known record of destroying prehistoric Native American sites;

*and planning on building their new track through the last of the pristine prairie areas in the United States.

A few of the consequences of the track will be:

*major air pollution with the proposed burning of the coal to the tune equal to one percent of the total global emission of carbon dioxide(!);

*hazardous materials handling training on the Pine Ridge Reservation; (Why? What will be the backhaul in those empty coal trains that will require hazardous material handling training? Why only in Pine Ridge? What if a train tips over in another place or city?)

*destruction of the migratory path of the pronghorn antelope from the prairies to the Black Hills, and destruction of other threatened and endangered species habitat;

*increased acid rain in the southern Black Hills, Badlands National Park, spreading across the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations.

The Surface Transportation Board, made up of two people, Linda J. Morgan and Wayne O. Burkes, is supposed to have received all of this information.

Many hearings were held along the proposed route with a special three day hearing held on the Rosebud Reservation in south central South Dakota.

Evidently the STB did hear but chose instead to require 147 different kinds of mitigation measures to address the environmental impacts. These measures alone will cost about $170 million dollars.

The DM&E, however, has an answer to everything. Admitting that it will cost $1.5 billion to carry out this grand scheme, they are saying they will have partners. Now, why weren't we told this in the beginning?

There is also the possibility of selling the entire railroad to Union Pacific or the Canadian Pacific Ltd. Railroads. We don't know anything about those Railroad companies. Do they destroy Native American sites? Do they violate treaties?

When I was a young person, I was privileged to attend meetings where the elders talked for days about something of major importance to the Oglala people before arriving at a consensus.

The discussions continued until everyone agreed. This required that everyone be given the opportunity to completely explain their position.

After much discussion and prayers, some compromises might have had to take place, or they started all over to look at it from another angle in case they missed something. The discussions went on for days.

The time was taken because major decisions that would cause grave impacts required the input and agreement of all the people. It was called consensus.

Not so, the American system. [I won't even mention the Florida affair.] The American system, with its checks and balances of public hearings and studies, has allowed a Board of two people to make the final decision on a project that will have global impact. (I wonder if those two people ever heard the term ˜global warming"?)

Did Lakota people speak up? Yes, a resounding yes! In this American system, (which we know has never listened to us Indian people anyway) we tried to follow the process that other American citizens follow.

We thought that our voices and concerns would help the decision be for sanity and survival. It wasn't. This American way of letting two people decide the fate of the planet is far beyond my level of understanding.

Can the American Congress do something? Why not? Minnesota's Senator Mark Dayton has said he is against this project. Congress will soon be talking about a new energy bill.

We need to demand that Congress stop this railroad and the certain destruction of the atmosphere. We have so much wind and sun in Minnesota, South Dakota, and Wyoming that it could bypass any energy extracted from burning coal.

Write to Sen. Dayton at United States Senate, Washington, DC, 20510. Call him at 202-224-3244.

Or do you think it is acceptable for two people to decide the fate of the planet?


Charmaine White Face, Zumila Wobaga, a member of the Oglala Lakota band of the Tetuwin Oceti Sakowin, is an author, and grandmother. E-mail may be sent to [email protected] or mail sent to PO Box 140, Manderson, SD 57756

Source: WorldSong Entertainment
PRNewswire/ Press Release

The World Largest Concert, recently taped on November 1 & 2, 2001 at the Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City, Utah, is led by the International Youth Choir of Utah, and features special guest
Native American (Jicarilla Apache) singer-songwriter Matthew Andrae (WorldSong Entertainment Co-Founder), performing songs for peace.

WASHINGTON, Jan. 14 /PRNewswire/ --

WorldSong Entertainment CEO, Todd Young, and John Mahlman the Executive Director of the Music Educator's National Conference: National Association of Music Educators (MENC), announced today that they expect more than Eight Million Children to participate in the 18th Annual World's Largest Concert for World Peace, to air on PBS and The Armed Forces Network on March 14th 2002.

As of January 1, over 300 PBS television stations
have committed to air the broadcast. The WLC is sponsored and co-produced by WorldSong Entertainment.

As part of their music education curriculum, millions of children, ages 8-18, in classrooms around the world, will tune-in and lend their voices to this musical celebration of unity and diversity.

Created and produced by MENC, the 18th annual World's Largest Concert is a highlight of the nationally celebrated Music In Our Schools
Month (MIOSM).

The World Largest Concert, recently taped on November 1 & 2, 2001 at the Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City, Utah, is led by the International Youth Choir of Utah, and features special guest
Native American (Jicarilla Apache) singer-songwriter Matthew Andrae (WorldSong Entertainment Co-Founder), performing songs for peace.

The WLC program has been selected to include songs from past and future Olympic host countries from Japan (1998) to China (2008) and features
Andrae's "The Next Country Over,'' (co-written by Richard Ian Greene) a contemporary/pop song with a timely message: "may the next country over be peaceful.''

"It's massive,'' said Andrae, "... sort of like an eight-million-voice petition for peace from the children of the World.''

WorldSong Entertainment's Sponsorship of The World's Largest Concert is part of WorldSong 2002, "an international initiative, using music
as the driving force, to promote a greater awareness and appreciation of diverse world cultures,'' according to WorldSong CEO Todd Young.

Young continues, "The World's Largest Concert is a perfect vehicle for cultivating a culture of peace, as it affords millions of young people the opportunity to learn about diverse cultures through something they love-music."

"It also gives them a voice and an opportunity to have an impact, collectively, on a very large scale.''

"We're pleased to be working with WorldSong and to be broadcasting from the site of the 2002 Olympic Games -- a location we'll all be reading about and watching this Winter,'' said John Mahlman, MENC Executive Director.

"As our world's children join in singing these
wonderful songs from around the globe, they will be joining in the Olympic spirit of unity and excellence in achievement.'' Young added,
"It gives children a voice. It is often said that children are the future leaders of the world. We believe they should start today.''


WorldSong Entertainment

Matthew Andrae co-wrote "The Next Country Over" with seasoned songwriter Richard Ian Greene and will perform their anthem for Peace at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah as part of WorldSong 2002 - a global initiative for World Peace.

Mr. Andrae has performed the WorldSong 2002 theme song "The Next Country Over" at an inaugural ceremony of the Salt Lake Olympics in 1999 and for First Vice President of the International Olympic Committee, Anita DeFrantz, at her invitation.

Mr. Andrae is a co-founder of WorldSong Entertainment and the co-creator of World Song 2002.

AUTHOR: Patrick Z. McGavin

Bristling with anger, humor and a deep sadness, Chris Eyre's second feature "Skins" is a torrent of moods, feelings and scorched fury.

In examining a struggle of acceptance and reconciliation between two brothers, the film acknowledges a culture whose scarred past and uncertain future remain inchoate and incomplete.

"Smoke Signals," Eyre's lyrical and funny debut, had a more mature and accomplished voice than this film, thanks to the sharp observations and graceful characterizations of writer Sherman Alexie.

"Skins" offers a considerable technical advance on the first film, but is not as stable and often struggles to find an emotional rhythm.

The transitions are a bit jerky, and the characters move in and out of the frame too abruptly for the story to ever achieve its full expression.

The story, which was adapted from Adrian C. Louis' novel of the same name by screenwriter Jennifer D. Lyne, works best as impressionism, bracketing its portrait of squalor and desperation against a community that prides itself on its heritage.

It begins with a burst of documentary naturalism; via a staggering collection of video images, we witness the heartwrenching struggles of the Oglala Sioux as they try to maintain a semblance of decency on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.

The poorest county in the U.S., Pine Ridge is riddled with 75% unemployment and ridiculously high levels of domestic abuse.

The film centers on the contentious and emotionally complicated relationship of two haunted brothers caught at radically opposite ends of the responsibility spectrum.

Mogie (Graham Greene), a decorated Vietnam veteran, is a bitter, defeated drunk who spends much of his day in an incoherent haze.

His younger brother Rudy (Eric Schweig) is a criminal investigator with the local police department. Rudy also leads a shadow life as a vigilante with his own brand of justice; he beats up two murderous local punks and burns down the white-owned liquor store in an effort to wipe out the community's rampant alcohol abuse.

Rudy's story has sharp echoes of Jim Thompson's novel "Pop. 1280," in which a socially marginal sheriff violently wipes out the people who have caused him shame and embarrassment.

In its best moments, "Skins" dramatizes the internal struggle wrought by assimilation. The presence of the past inflects and invades the present in this film, rendering a community crippled by forces beyond its control or authority.

The complicated interaction of the two brothers is Eyre's greatest achievement; rage, embarrassment, grief and finally, a moving and unshakable bond are all conveyed with skill.

Violence and family grief are present as well, passed on through generations. In a sharply-rendered flashback, we see the brothers as high school football stars whose game is interrupted by the violent outbursts of their father. ("The past isn't past," as Faulkner says. "It isn't even dead."). Mogie remains trapped by the past, but Rudy is determined to recast it.

"Skins" operates effectively within its moods and tones and has ironic and furious humor, but the storytelling remains awkward and unfocused.

The narrative is jerky and incomplete -- one apparently major character, a troubled woman with an attraction to Rudy, appears early on and then disappears completely. And the ramifications of Rudy's alternate identity are never fully explored, leaving the movie somewhat adrift.

The film is loaded with incident and detail, some of it grimly funny (the recurring images of Rudy's ungainliness and physical awkwardness, a sorrowful and violently unsettling image of a man caught in a bear trap).

It animates a culture cut-off from the world that is defined almost entirely by ritual and its tenuous connections to the past.

There is also an anger due in part to a government policy of neglect and abuse. But in the end, Rudy's vigilante impulses and Mogie's social outrage merge and find their expression in one spectacular act of protest art.

It is a fitting conclusion to a movie caught on the precipice of anger and grief, outrage and hurt. The point may be didactic, but the effect is unmistakable.

In a letter dated December 18, 2001, The DEA’s Deputy Assistant Administrator for the Office of Diversion Control, Laura Nagel, noted that the agency is purposing to “delete all references to the ‘Native American Church’ and to ‘members of the Native American Church’ in the regulation.”

KEYWORDS: FAITA First Americans in the Arts faita first americans in the arts FIRST AMERICANS IN THE ARTS native american actors american indian actresses FAITA awards FAITA scholarship for american indians achievements of native entertainers Molly Culver Outstanding Performance by an Actress in a TV Series Irene Bedard Henry Kingi Lifetime Achievement in Stunts Rita Coolidge Autry Museum of Western Heritage Saginaw Grant Eric Schweig culture of the American West

AUTHOR: Jackie Bissley / Indian Country Today

It was ten years ago in the back of a Los Angeles diner, Bob's Big Boy, that the First Americans in the Arts (FAITA) founding members, Bob Hicks and Dawn Jackson, conceived of the idea of hosting an award show. Thus FAITA was born and the annual event has since gone on to become a high profile venue where the achievements of native entertainers are recognized and honored.

This year's star-studded gala dinner was held on Feb. 2 in the heart of Beverly Hills at the Century Plaza Hotel.

Molly Culver, former model playing a bodyguard in the TV show V.I.P., won for Outstanding Performance by an Actress in a TV Series.

Irene Bedard was honored for a guest performance in the TV series The Agency.

Veteran actor Saginaw Grant and up and coming star Eric Schweig, featured in Chris Eyre’s new film Skins turned up to support their comrades in the arts.

Shannon Curfman, 16-year-old rock and blues singer, signed autographs for young fans.

Besides presenting awards to screen actors, FAITA also recognizes other performers in the field of dance and theatre.

This year, veteran stuntman/actor Henry Kingi was also honored with an award for Lifetime Achievement in Stunts, as was singer Rita Coolidge for her continuing contribution to the world of music.

The Autry Museum of Western Heritage received a humanitarian award for its commitment in educating and preserving the culture of the American West.

FAITA, a non-profit organization, also provides scholarship grants to those aspiring filmmakers studying their craft. This year's recipients were Nanobah Becker (Navajo), Melody Grant (Muscogee Creek), Bennie Klain (Navajo) and Gerald Vandever (Navajo).


Jackie Bissley / Indian Country Today
©2002 Indian Country Today

KEYWORDS: Gathering of Eagles Custer SD South Dakota peace retreat prayer vigil American Indian spirituality Canyon Calm vision of Lakota leader Black Elk Black Hills religions and spiritual beliefs sacred fire terrorism in America talking-stick circles purification lodges music storytelling traditional singing dancing

AUTHOR: Lynn Taylor Rick, Staff Writer, Rapid City Journal

At perhaps no other time in recent history has the Gathering of Eagles
carried such significance.
The annual get-together, held near Custer, strives to bring understanding
among people, particularly in the area of spirituality.

"The focus is on the unity of all of us," Mary Ellen Uptain, one of the
organizers of the event, said.

This year's Gathering of Eagles begins Thursday, June 27, and runs through
Sunday, June 30, at Canyon Calm, 24 miles southwest of Custer. It is free and
open to the public.

The Gathering of Eagles is based on the vision of Lakota leader Black Elk,
who had a dream of peace and unity among all people.

The first two Gathering
of Eagles events were held in Saskatchewan, Canada, in 1989-90. In 1991, it
moved to New Mexico, and the fourth gathering in 1992 was held in the Black
There have been eight gatherings in the Black Hills since 1992, some hosting
as many as 500 people.

Although the event leans heavily on American Indian spirituality — elders
from various tribes nationwide attend — the gathering is designed to open the
doors to all types of religions and spiritual beliefs.

The gathering includes a sacred fire that will be lit on the first day of the
event and burned throughout. There will be speakers, talking-stick circles,
purification lodges, music and storytelling, traditional singing and dancing,
and youth activities.

With conflicts in the Middle East and terrorism in America, the gathering is
particularly poignant and needed this year, Uptain said. People must learn to
get past prejudices, she said. "We're all human beings."

People are invited to come for a short time or for the entire weekend, Uptain
said. There is room for RV parking, tents and teepees. Uptain said the
gathering is a family event and children are welcome. No alcohol, drugs or
weapons are allowed.


Lynn Taylor Rick is a Staff Writer for the Rapid City Journal.

Source: Stephen Hunt
The Salt Lake Tribune

The Utah Supreme Court has agreed to decide whether non-American Indians can use peyote legally during religious ceremonies.

Author: James Hagengruber
Billings Gazette Staff Writer

Keywords: Indians fight racism Winona LaDuke native american quotes Indian Country tribal politicians Little Big Horn College Crow Agency Chief Dull Knife College Lame Deer Crow and Northern Cheyenne reservations buy posters wolf poster animal art free wolf picture.

Fight racism by studying hard and speaking up, former vice-presidential candidate Winona LaDuke told about 600 local American Indian students attending a conference in Billings on Wednesday.

“There is no social-change fairy,” said LaDuke, an Ojibwa from Minnesota. “There is only change made by the hands of individuals.”

LaDuke also spoke out against the bickering that occurs inside Indian Country, saying the “fighting over crumbs” keeps tribes from developing a unified voice.

"Tribal politicians are often too busy arguing with each other to push for better health care, environmental protection and education," she told the crowd at the Montana Convention Center.

LaDuke, a human rights advocate and Harvard graduate who was Ralph Nader’s vice presidential candidate in the 2000 election, was keynote speaker at Career Institute 2002, organized by the School to Work Program at Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, with help from Chief Dull Knife College in Lame Deer.

Attending were students and educators from schools on the Crow and Northern Cheyenne reservations, as well as schools in Colstrip, Hardin and Billings.

Workshops during the two-day event ranged from grant writing to racism to honoring war veterans. John Youngbear, one of the organizers, said the focus was on equipping students with practical solutions.

“We talk and talk and nothing ever happens,” Youngbear said. “Hopefully this will give some answers.”

Catherine Whiteman, a student at the Lame Deer Alternative Learning Center, said she was impressed by the frank discussions of racism and tribal infighting. Discussing these topics will help students avoid them, she said.

“It’s brave of LaDuke to bring it up,” Whiteman said. “She’s right.”

Artist and Gazette columnist John Potter worked with LaDuke during the workshop titled “Native vs. Natives.”

Potter, an Ojibwa from northern Wisconsin, said the infighting is corrosive to individuals and families. One of the more common forms is full-blooded tribal members picking on those with some white ancestry.

“It’s a subject that Indian people don’t want to face most of the time,” Potter said. “We natives have contracted the disease of racism from our conquerors and we have little resistance to it. ... We need to get over this.”

Although the problems are deep, change is occurring on reservations, participants said. A major factor has been the rise of tribal colleges in the past 20 years, which has created new opportunities for thousands of American Indians.

Whiteman said she’s beginning to notice a difference in Lame Deer, on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation. More people have college degrees, she said. “Since we’ve become more educated, our reservation has become better.”

With education, people are more likely to work for change, Whiteman said. While she was taking a summer school class at Billings Senior High, Whiteman spoke out against a teacher’s reading selection.

The books, she said, all seemed to put down minorities. The teacher refused to listen, but another teacher stepped in and pushed for changes in the literature class.

“It got done. I was surprised,” Whiteman said. “Speak out and you’ll be heard.”

One of Whiteman’s friends, Aubrey Ridge Bear, of Lame Deer, said students continue to have hope. “We need to be educated as people so we can go out there and bring change.”

LaDuke encouraged the students to seek the highest educational degree possible, but also warned against forgetting traditional values.

She told the students to consider careers in the nonprofit sector and to use their backgrounds to help formulate compassionate public policy.

“There are many choices open,” she said. “Sometimes the path is not well-drawn. Sometimes you have to make the path.”

Copyright © The Billings Gazette, a division of Lee Enterprises.


James Hagengruber can be reached at 657-1232 or at [email protected].

Inupiat Eskimos from the North Slope of Alaska questioned the validity of Presbyterian leader Dr. Tom English's generalization that Presbyterians are opposed to opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to energy exploration.

The show "Across Borders: Beadwork in Iroquois Life" at the George Gustav Heye Center of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian lays to rest any idea that the tourist items were mostly made-for-the-trade tchotchkes.

Done with a vital design sense and extraordinary handcraft, they are part of a long line of Iroquois beadwork that goes back hundreds of years to a time when beads made from shells and bird bones were used instead of the tiny glass cylinders first brought to North America by European explorers in the 16th century.

The Navajo police lieutenant from 14 Tony Hillerman novels has been altered for television. But his creator is pleased with what he sees.

LIMA, Peru (AP) - Explorers have found the extensive ruins of an Inca village, complete with human remains, sprawled spectacularly across a mountain in southern Peru, the expedition leaders said Monday. 

The ancient settlement clings to the slopes of a rugged peak in a region of the Andes Mountains where the Incas hid after the Spanish conquest. It consists of more than 100 structures, including a ridge-top truncated pyramid, ceremonial platforms and a five-mile-long channel.

British author Peter Frost, who led an eight-member expedition to the area last year, said it is the largest Inca site found since 1964 when American explorer Gene Savoy discovered Vilcabamba, considered the capital of the empire's jungle refuge.

"Few, if any, Spanish conquistadors ever reached the southern part of Vilcabamba," Frost said in an interview. "This site may ultimately yield a record of Inca civilization from the very beginning to the very end, undisturbed by European contact - an unparalleled opportunity." 

The Incas ruled Peru from the 1430s until the arrival of the Spaniards in 1532, constructing stone-block cities and roads and developing a highly organized and militarized society. 

The settlement is 290 miles southeast of Lima and about 24 miles southwest of Machu Picchu, Peru's most famous Inca ruins and its top tourist destination. 

Frost, 56, who writes about Inca history and guides hiking tours in the Andes, first saw ruins in 1999 while leading an adventure trek nearby. He returned in May 2001 with a monthlong expedition sponsored by the National Geographic Society. 

"The site turned out to be far more extensive than we expected," said Alfredo Valencia, a Peruvian archaeologist who participated in the dig. "It's spread over six square kilometers (2.4 square miles) and is up around 11,000 feet on very steep terrain, and its natural beauty is stunning."

Frost believes the Incas, who worshipped snowcapped mountain peaks, settled there because of the spectacular views of surrounding ranges. He also thinks the inhabitants worked at a silver mine about a mile away. 

Since the expedition, the team has been studying pottery, stone instruments and human remains collected at the site. The ceramics were decorated with crisscross designs typical of the Incas. 

The site, a four-day walk from the nearest road, has several cylindrical, aboveground funeral towers, where elite may have been entombed. The mausoleums had been heavily looted, Frost said, but skeletons were found in other underground chambers.


Copyright 2002 Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

Copyright © The Billings Gazette, a division of Lee Enterprises.

AUTHOR: Sadie Jo Smokey
The Arizona Republic
© 2002 The Seattle Times Company

Shan Redhouse-Baldwin grew up wondering why Native Americans on TV had blue eyes.

"We used to have a lot of questions for my mom," says Redhouse-Baldwin, 28, a Navajo who grew up in Arizona and Utah.

"They used to film Westerns in Monument Valley. They were right there on the reservation, and they still didn't use Native American (actors)."

To make nationwide connections, Redhouse-Baldwin and five other Arizonans entered the Four Directions Talent Search, sponsored by NBC and the Oneida Indian Nation of New York. The search was held in September and early October in Denver and Seattle.

Sonny Skyhawk, founder and chairman of American Indians in Film and Television, says he's not surprised by the roles Native Americans get. Skyhawk, a Sicangu Lakota from South Dakota, got his start in Westerns 30 years ago.

WASHINGTON D.C. - U.S. Representative Tom Udall, D-N.M., a member of the House Veterans Affairs Committee, applauded President Bush for signing legislation into law that incorporates his effort to extend a direct housing loan pilot project for Native American veterans.

Keywords: Native Youth Movement NYM American Indian Movement AIM native youth movement chapters Turtle Island NYM chapter native american activist american indian activists indigenous rights causes issues Indian land apache navajo pueblo Gathering of Nations Pow Wow assimilation warrior nations tiwa tewa youth warriors red nations mexica

Source: International Press Release

3 New NYM Chapters Form


More Native Youth Warriors Unite to Stand & Fight

(Tinde (Apache), Dineh (Navajo), Tiwa, Tewa (Pueblo) Traditional
Territories (Albuquerque, NM, January 18, 2002)--Three new Native Youth
Movement chapters have formed out of the need for Native Youth to stand
and protect our land and what is rightfully ours.

Native Youth from many red nations across Turtle Island (the white man calls it “USA”)
have joined the movement to fight for our Land, Water, Peoples, Way of
Life and our future.

The newly formed NYM chapters include Southwest NYM, which has members
across northern new mexico and colorado.

Las Cruses NYM has members in
southern new mexico and 515 NYM has members in central and northern

Jr. Garcia, a Mexica/Apache from Southwest NYM explains why he became a
NYM member, “I want to protect our Earth Mother from being raped and
abused the white man way, we no longer need to live the white many
ways. This is our Land; all of what they call United States is Indian
Land. We need our own villages back again, our land and water and we
will fight for all of this.”

Jr. Garcia wants everyone to know that the
Gathering of Nations Pow Wow will lead to the gathering of nations of
NYM in the near future, so be prepared.

This is Indian Land. To all
the Native Youth out there, Southwest NYM invites you to join us at
Gathering of Nations in April 2002.

When asked about why she became a NYM member, Tray, an Apache from the
newly formed Las Cruses Chapter said, “This is OUR LAND! It’s time
people realize who the real illegal aliens are; they put the borders
through our homeland and territory. We don’t recognize their borders.
The only illegal aliens here are the pilgrims and their descendents.”

Big Willis from the new NYM 515 Chapter sees the assimilation strategy
behind the government and its man-made system and proclaims, “It’s 515,
time to take back the land. Down with this rotten ass system! This is
Indian Land! The youth are going to uprise and take back what is
rightfully ours.”

It’s not stopping here, NYM is spreading from Alaska from Argentina.

Every Native Youth on a move is NYM and we hope they all apply the name
so we can work under a larger network and unite more Warrior Nations.



Jr., Southwest NYM

[email protected]

Tray, Las Cruses NYM
[email protected]

Phone (503) 363-2863

Big Willis, 515 NYM

[email protected]

RED POWER is the spirit to resist,

RED POWER is pride in what we are,

RED POWER is love for our people,

RED POWER is our coming together to
fight for liberation,

RED POWER in now!!!!!!!

Get more information at

Spirits are being awakened for the first time in 60 years.

I can see it in the faces of those around me, Blackfoot Indians from both sides of the border, gathering on Canada Day at a ranch in northern Montana to celebrate the return of a vital link to their past.

The popular prime-time situation comedy “Dharma and Greg” chronicles the life of the mismatched couple of the New Ager, Dharma and her attorney husband, Greg. In a recent episode, viewers were treated to vignettes of Dharma and Greg’s lives prior to their meeting, and how they just missed meeting each other numerous times—proof that theirs was a love meant to be.

This episode also features Navajo actress Geraldine Keams as a sweat-lodge leading medicine woman—and she literally has the last laugh on the couple.

AUTHOR: Jerry Reid
Oneida Nation

In a major effort to increase the presence of Native Americans on television, NBC and the Oneida Nation have established a talent search for Indian actors, comedians and writers. Information and updates about this uniqueopportunity are now available on a new web site.

Oneida Nation Homelands -

The Four Directions Talent Search, recently launched by NBC the Oneida Indian Nation, now has a home on the Internet. Information regarding the nationwide Native talent search can be found on the web at Four Directions Talent.

In a major effort to increase the presence of Native Americans on television, NBC and the Nation established a talent search for Indian actors, comedians and writers. Information and updates about this unique opportunity are available on the new web site.

The site includes links to venues in Seattle, Denver,Miami, Toronto and Connecticut where first round events will be held, beginning in August at Foxwoods Resort Casino.

The Oneida Nation's Turning Stone Casino Resort, the site of the semi-finals, has a featured link. Visitors also can explore Performance Space NBC (PSNBC), the New York City site where the finals will be held on November 7.

Features such as celebrity quotes, showbiz tips and a talent directory of Native performers will be available soon.

The talent search is open to tribally affiliated Native Americans/First Nations members. There is no restriction on individuals who are currently under contract with a talent agent or studio. All performers and writers are encouraged to apply through the web site via an online application form.

"Breaking into films, television or live theater is difficult for Native Americans who may have talent but never have had access to the opportunities," said Ray Halbritter, Nation Representative and Chief Operating Officer of the Nation. "Through Four Directions, NBC and the Oneida Nation will help open doors and cultivate this talent.

The talent search begins with regional showcases around the U.S. and Canada, with first round events in Seattle, Denver, Miami, Toronto and northeast Connecticut.

These events will be held at Foxwoods Resort Casino in Mashantucket, Connecticut on August 24, The Comedy Works in Denver on September 11, Yuk Yuks Comedy Club in Toronto on September 24, The Comedy Underground in Seattle on October 9 and The Comedy Corner in West Palm Beach on October 22.

Entrants in each round will showcase their talent by performing prepared monologues or stand-up comedy sets and will be judged by a panel of entertainment professionals.

Performers selected in the regional will then advance to a semi-final round in the showroom at Oneida's Turning Stone Casino Resort, with the finals to be held on November 7 at Performance Space NBC (PSNBC) in New York City's Soho district.

In addition to those performers, writers may submit a screenplay, script, or short story for review by an entertainment industry oriented advisory panel. Those writers receiving accolades by the advisory panel will be presented at the PSNBC performance.

Entries may also be submitted to: Four Directions Talent Search, Oneida Nation Communications, 579A Main Street, Oneida, NY 13421.


Oneida Nation Partners with Veteran Producers to Form Production Company


Jerry Reed is Media Specialist for Oneida Nation Communications.

Keywords: Leonard Peltier AIM NYM american indian activists native american activist leonard peltier appeal

Source: The Associated Press, FARGO, N.D.

The Associated Press FARGO, N.D. -- American Indian activist Leonard Peltier has appealed a judge's decision to uphold the two murder sentences imposed on him in 1977.

Peltier claimed he never had the chance to argue that his sentences should be based on the theory he, at most, aided others in the killings of two FBI agents in 1975, or that he acted in self-defense.

Leonard Peltier was one of four men charged with killing the agents in a shootout on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota. Two suspects were acquitted in 1976, and the third was freed for lack of evidence.

Peltier was convicted of the murders in Fargo and was sentenced in 1977.

In November, he asked a judge to allow the two life terms to run concurrently, rather than consecutively. The change would give Peltier an earlier chance at parole.

U.S. District Judge Paul Magnuson rejected the request, saying Peltier had earlier opportunities to make the same argument.

Peltier's previous appeals, including a similar request to reduce his sentence, also have been denied.

Leonard Peltier's latest request was filed November 1 and rejected February 25. Peltier filed a notice of appeal to the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals Thursday.

Peltier is being held in the federal prison in Leavenworth, KS and is next up for parole in 2008.

Please, could you thank Shannon Yellow Horse from the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota for the beautiful bone choker that she made?

Keywords: Anishinaabe nation Ojibwe Indians Chippewa tribe television programming TV documentary historical and contemporary scenes never before seen on television Ojibwe life in the upper Great Lakes region Ojibwe culture from pre-contact to contemporary times WDSE-TV Duluth/Superior public television environment education family systems economic survival leadership governance ojibwa language ojibwe oral tradition health medicine tribal elders

Source: The Daily Press

DULUTH -- "Waasa Inaabidaa...We Look In All Directions" is a powerful in-depth portrayal of the second largest tribe in North America: the Anishinaabe/Ojibwe (Chippewa) nation.

The six-part series invites viewers through a portal of rich historical and contemporary scenes, never before seen on television, to experience Ojibwe life in the upper Great Lakes region.

Each episode will span Ojibwe culture from pre-contact to contemporary times focusing on six main themes.

The series will premier beginning this March and into April on WDSE-TV Duluth/Superior public television:

1: "Gakina-Awiiya...We Are All Related -- Relationship to the Environment" airs March 14 at 8:30 p.m. Repeats March 21 at 7 p.m.

2: "Gikinoo'amaadiwin...We Gain Knowledge -- Education and Family Systems" March 28

3: "Gaa-Miinigooyang...That Which is Given To Us -- Economic Survival," April 4 at 7 p.m.

4: "Gwayakochigewin... Making Decisions the Right Way -- Leadership and Governance," April 11 at 7 p.m.

5: "Bimaadiziwin... A Healthy Way of Life -- Health and Medicine" April 18 at 7 p.m.

6: "Ojibewmowin...Ojibwe Oral Tradition -- Language" April 25 at 7 p.m.

This series includes over 100 interviews with tribal elders, historians, youth, and leaders from the from the nineteen Ojibwe Bands in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Combined with 3,000 archival photographs and on-camera testimonials by academic historians, this series will enthrall and educate the public about Ojibwe culture and life.

Original and historic artwork combined with dramatic re-enactment scenes will poignantly illustrate the four seasons traditional life cycle of the Ojibwe and the impact of the Fur Trade, Euro-American systems and settlement on Ojibwe culture and people through the last two centuries.

Fast-paced footage shot on location will bring viewers into the dynamic activities of Reservation life today with all the complex issues facing tribal communities from health care reform to affirmation of treaty rights.

This is not just an Ojibwe story; it is an American story of adaptation and survival, desperation and ingenuity, bitter betrayals and stunning victories. Only by examining the past of tribal nations can viewers understand tribes today.

Though uniquely rooted in the Great Lakes region, Ojibwe history and contemporary lifestyle parallel other tribal nations throughout the United States.

Filmed on location in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, the six hour-long episodes include 135 personal interviews from 19 Ojibwe reservations.

Dramatic re-enactment, animation, archival photos/film, historic documents, and contemporary reservation scenes will tell a powerful story through a chronological arc.

Keywords: american indian pow wow native american pow wows indian dance
Souix Indian events things to see and do in South Dakota wacipi Mdewakanton Association dakota sioux tribe how to say dance in the dakota sioux language Mankato US-Dakota conflict kids pages dakota 38 38 Dakota warriors executed in Mankato Mdewakanton Dakota

SOURCE: Canku Ota(Many Paths), An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America

One of our favorite pow wows is the Mahkato Wacipi. Learn more about it in this article.

The Mdewakanton Association provides an avenue for bridging the
gap in Indian-White relations in the Mankato area. The purpose of the
Association is:

  • To create a climate for positive interaction between Mdewakanton
    Dakota and non-Dakota people.
  • To learn about and promote an understanding of the Mdewakanton
    Dakota culture.
  • To contribute to a broaden understanding of Mdewakanton Dakota
    people and their contributions to this community's development.


As a means of realizing these
purposes, the Mdewakanton Association has for many years cosponsored
and helped organize events with the Dakota communities that have allowed
descendants of the 38 Dakota to feel comfortable in returning to their
ancestral home.

One of the primary cosponsored
and co-organized events has been the Mahkato pow-wow or Wacipi (Wa-CHEE-pee
meaning "dance" in Dakota).

Having a cultural event like this
in Mankato is unique for two reasons. First, there are no reservations
near Mankato. Secondly, the creation of this annual Wacipi grew out
of a friendship, in the late 1950s, between two men, Mr. Amos Owen,
a Dakota elder, pipe maker and spiritual advisor to many from the Prairie
Island Mdewakanton Community (90 miles northeast of Mankato) and Mr.
Bud Lawrence, a Mankato non-Dakota businessman.

As an outgrowth of this
friendship, the first Mankato pow-wow since the 1800s was put on at
the YMCA in 1965. Since 1972, an annual three-day traditional Dakota
Mahkato Mdewakanton Wacipi has been held the third full weekend in September
in Mankato, MN.

In 1976, the Mdewakanton Club, a nonprofit organization,
was formed. Members of this organization include Native Americans and
whites from the Mankato area and Dakota communities.

The 1972 pow-wow or Wacipi
in Mankato was held in Key City Park, a baseball park. The Jr. Chamber
of Commerce Wives and the YMCA Y's Men Association, under Jim Buckley,
Director, sponsored this pow-wow.

Key supporters in the mid-1970s included
the Zonta Club and the Chamber of Commerce. Between 1974 and 1979, the
pow-wow was held in Sibley Park.

In 1980, the City of Mankato demonstrated
its support by designating a park site named by the Dakota people as
"Dakota Wokiksuye Makoce Park" (Land of Memories Park) for
the Mahkato (meaning "earth blue" in Dakota) Wacipi.

site is seen by the Dakota as an area where many ceremonies and gatherings
took place prior to the 1862 U.S.-Dakota Conflict, which resulted in
the execution of 38 Dakota warriors in Mankato, December 26, 1862.

annual traditional Wacipi event is held to honor the 38 Dakota warriors
who died in that execution, the largest mass execution in U.S. history.

Over the years, financial support for this event has come from business
donations, Dakota and Mankato community donations, personal donations
and pow-wow button sales.

The Mdewakanton Association
promotes opportunities to educate the community about the Dakota history,
heritage and contributions to this area. In the Association's early
years, the Association arranged educational sessions with Dakota people
for the Mankato area schools, Boy Scouts, churches, National Campfire
and the YMCA.

In 1987, the 125th anniversary of the U.S.-Dakota Conflict,
Minnesota Governor Rudy Perpich issued a Proclamation for Reconciliation
between Minnesota Dakota and non-Dakota people. Statewide, mutually
created educational activities by Dakota and non-Dakota took place as
a means of continuing the healing process between Dakota and non-Dakota

In 1987, as an outgrowth of the reconciliation emphasis,
a Dakota-Mankato communally-shared educational program involving all
area third grade children was established. Between 1987 and 2000, over
10,000 children teachers, parents and Native American resource persons
have participated in a unique direct cultural exchange education program
held in conjunction with the annual Dakota Mahkato Mdewakanton pow-wow
or Wacipi at Land of Memories (Wokiksuye Makoce) Park each September.

In 1989, an additional public educational opportunity was added to the
Saturday/Sunday Wacipi activities in the form of a Learning Center Tent
where Native American resource persons teach interested persons about
their culture.

For many years, Mr. Amos Owen came to Mankato on December 26th to pay tribute
to the 38 Dakota warriors executed in Mankato. In 1986, a memorial relay
run between Ft. Snelling (Minneapolis) and Mankato was established.

The Mdewakanton Association assists in this annual honoring ceremony
by serving as a liaison between the Mankato community and Dakota communities
and as a host for the feast following the run and memorial ceremony
at the Land of Memories Park.

Efforts by the Mdewakanton
Association to bring about understanding have led to a climate leading
to support of the Winter Warrior Statue and Reconciliation Parkette
on the site of the execution and the naming of the Dakota Meadows Middle
School by its students (check out Dakota
Meadows "The Dakota Conflict of 1862" web site

Mdewakanton Association meetings
are held on the 3rd Thursday of each month at 7:00 p.m. at the Mankato
State University Campus Burger King Meeting Room on Stadium Rd. in Mankato.
Come join with others who support the Association's objectives. Consider
becoming a member of this volunteer organization.

To learn more about
this organization and it's activities, you are invited to come to a
meeting or write for further information. Inquiries may be sent to:

Mdewakanton Association

P.O. Box 3608,

Mankato, MN. 56002.




For a detailed history of the U.S.-Dakota history in this area,

"History of the Santee Sioux" - 2nd ed. (1993), R.W.
Meyers, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.

Conflict of 1862

Setting the Scene

Excerpted from: "The US - Dakota Conflict of 1862 - A Self-Guided Tour," a pamphlet published by the

Long before Europeans made their first forays into the
territory now known as Minnesota, Native American tribes regularly crossed
the Minnesota River at a fording place 14 miles north of the present city
of Mankato, half a mile north of St. Peter. Early French explorers gave
the site its present name, Traverse des Sioux (Cross Place of the Sioux

The solid river bottom through shallow water provided a natural gateway
between the dense woodlands on the east and the prairies and bison of
the west. As a well-traveled junction, it became a natural convergence
point for commerce both for the Native Americans and for European traders
and trappers.

By the 1820's, Louis Provencalle, a Frenchman working for John Jacob Astor's
American Fur Co., had set up a permanent fur-trading post at Traverse
Des Sioux. Soon a settlement sprang up around the post.

On July 23, 1851, one of the most significant Indian treaties in our nation's
history was signed at Traverse Des Sioux between the US government and
the Wahpeton and Sisseton bands of the Dakota. Two weeks later at Mendota,
a treaty was signed with the Mdewakanton and Wahpekute bands. These treaties
were instrumental in opening the American west to European settlement.

Some 24 million acres in Minnesota were ceded by the Dakota in exchange
for reservation lands and for $3,075,000 to be paid over a 50-year period
in annual annuities of goods and money -- about 12 cents an acre for some
of the finest agricultural land in the country.

Before ratifying the Treaty the US Senate added amendments that weakened
the Dakota position. Even with the changes, the terms of the treaty were
not entirely honored by the US

The treaties left about 7,000 Dakota with two reservations, each 20 miles
wide and 70 miles long, with a 10 mile strip on each side of the Minnesota
River. In 1858 the strip of land along the north side of the river, nearly
a million acres, was also ceded to the US The government established two
administrative centers, the Upper and Lower Sioux agencies.

Delayed and skipped payments drove the Dakota to increasing desperation
with each passing year. Through deceptive business practices, unscrupulous
traders and government agents took much of what the Indians did have.
Poverty, starvation, and general suffering led to unrest that in 1862
culminated in the U.S.-Dakota Conflict, which launched a series of Indian
wars on the northern plains that did not end until the battle of Wounded
Knee in 1890.

Colonel Henry H. Sibley commanded the military. A well-known fur trader,
Sibley was the Minnesota Territory's first delegate to Congress and the
state's first governor.

With most of the able-bodied men away fighting the Civil War, the Indians
seized their opportunity and very nearly succeeded. After first advising
of the futility of challenging the white man ("Kill one, two, ten
and ten times ten will come to kill you," he said), Mdewakanton Chief
Little Crow was persuaded to head the Dakota effort.

Before the Conflict (or Sioux Uprising, as it is often called) could be
brought under control, at least 450 white settlers and soldiers were killed
and considerable property was destroyed in southern Minnesota. There were
uncounted numbers of Dakota casualties because of the Indian custom of
removing all dead and dying warriors from the battlefield.

A five-man military commission was appointed to try the Dakota who participated
in the outbreak. The commission settled up to 40 cases in a single day.
Some were heard in as little as five minutes. In all, the commission tried
392, sentenced 307 to death and gave 16 prison terms. Many historians
today feel the trial was a travesty of justice.

Authority for the final order of execution was passed to President Lincoln.
He was pressured by politicians, military leaders, the press and public
for immediate execution of the 303 still on the condemned list. Interceding
on behalf of the Dakota was Episcopalian Bishop Henry Whipple, known to
the Indians as "Straight Tongue" for his fair dealings. The
Rev. Stephen Riggs and Dr. John P. Williamson, Presbyterian missionaries
to the Dakota, wrote letters to the press calling for a fair trial.

Lincoln approved death sentences for only 39 of the 303 prisoners. One
of the 39 was later reprieved.

At 10 a.m. on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, the group of 38 ascended
a specially-erected timber gallows 24 feet square and 20 feet high. More
than 1,400 soldiers of the 6th, 9th and 10th Minnesota Volunteers and
of the First Minnesota Mounted Rangers were on hand to keep order among
the crowds of hostile citizens. The Indians sang as they left their prison
and continued singing until the end. It was the largest mass execution
in American history.

 Mankato Area Chamber and Convention Bureau,
112 Riverfront Drive

PO Box 999

Mankato, MN 56002-0999



Here are several excellent web sites about the Dakota Conflict.
Meadows Middle School - Dakota Conflict of 1862: CyberFair Contestant

In 1862, when most of America was consumed
by the Civil War, fighting broke out between the Dakota and white
settlers in Minnesota. At the end of six weeks, hundreds of settlers
were dead, and the war against the Dakota had just begun. Thousands
of Dakota were in prison or in exile. On December 26, 1862, in the
largest mass execution ever in the United States, 38 Dakota were
hanged in Mankato. This is the story of that uprising. It is also
the story of reconciliation, of forgiveness, and of healing.

Minnesota State University's E-Museum -The Dakota Conflict

Indian - settler relations in the Minnesota
territory had never been good. One of the earliest French explorers,
Father Louis Hennepin, was taken prisoner by the Dakota in 1683.
Hennepin was released and went on to write about his explorations.
While his captivity is a very minor incident, it represented the
suspicion and misunderstanding that would plague Indian - settler
relations in Minnesota into the twentieth century.

Following the Path of the Dakota Conflict of 1862 - An Ask ERIC Lesson Plan

This lesson plan will cover approximately one
month in which students will be learning about the geography and history
of the Dakota Conflict of 1862. Many students living in Minnesota
never realize the historical importance of the state, let alone the
vital role the state played in developing the frontier of the United
States. The Dakota Conflict of 1862 marked the beginning of several
wars between the native Americans and the European settlers. This
occurred in our backyard of the Minnesota River Valley. By locating
and mapping historically significant sites along the Minnesota River,
the students will understand the importance of the Dakota Conflict
of 1862.


The Dakota (Sioux) War - A Closer Look at the Conflict by Dawud Rasheed

About the times: During the time of the Dakota
War and before, the Civil War had already began. Many whites were
gone to fight in the war. Since the Sioux had been disgusted with
their situation for some time they saw fit to attack the white man
when he was at his weakest fighting other whites. It is interesting
and perhaps ironic that at the same time African-Americans struggled
for freedom, Native Americans faced a very similar conflict. In this
case the Dakota choose to battle for their land and freedom at the
same time African-Americans are about to gain emancipation.

 The Dakota Conflict Trials by  Douglas Linder

A  framed photograph of the scene depicted
on this home page, the execution of thirty-eight Sioux on December
26, 1862, used to fascinate me when, as a boy in Mankato, Minnesota,
I would visit the Blue Earth County Historical Museum.  Apart
from its macabre appeal, the picture impressed me because it captured
the most famous event in the history of my hometown (easily surpassing
in significance the death there of an obscure Vice President who died
while changing trains on his way to the Black Hills).  The hanging,
following trials which condemned over three hundred participants in
the 1862 Dakota Conflict, stands as the largest mass execution in
American history. Only the unpopular intervention of President Lincoln
saved 265 other Dakota and mixed-bloods from the fate met by the less
fortunate thirty-eight.  The mass hanging was the concluding
scene in the opening chapter of a story of American-Sioux conflict
that would not end until the Seventh Calvary completed its massacre
at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on December 29, 1890.

Mankato Area History
Here are several excellent web sites about local history.

City of Mankato - Visitor Information - Synopsis of Mankato History

Mankato was originally called Mahkato, meaning
greenish blue earth to Mankato's first inhabitants, the Dakota Indians.
These native Mankatoans prefer the name Dakota meaning friend to the
name Sioux meaning snake like enemy given to them by their rivals,
the Ojibwe. An early spelling error was never corrected and Mahkato
became Mankato.

  Minnesota State University's E-Museum - Welcome to Mankato, Minnesota!

Where is Mankato? Located in Southern Minnesota,
Mankato is the urban center for Southern Minnesota and contains excellent
schools and health care services as well as a bustling business district.
It is located in Blue Earth County where the Minnesota River bends
northward and joins with the Blue Earth River. It's sister city, North
Mankato, is just across the river in Nicollet County.

 Welcome to North Mankato

Welcome to the home page for the City of North
Mankato, Minnesota. Thank you for visiting! On this page, you can
learn about the City and its various departments and services. (click
on history)


Blue Earth County History

Blue Earth County is located in the heart of
southern Minnesota, on the western edge of an area once known as the
“Big Woods.” Important features of the county are its many rivers,
streams, and lakes. These natural highways were heavily traveled by
the Indians who lived in the region for hundreds of years and left
their cultural imprint.


Minnesota State University's E-Museum - Welcome to Minnesota Prehistory

The following site presents differing aspects
and features of Minnesota Prehistory. Click on the image at left to
learn about: Minnesota Archaeology - An overview of the development
of Minnesota Archeology and the Archaeologists. Taxonomy - A look
at the phases, dating, and periods of Minnesota Prehistory. Sites-
A selection of Sites from the different phases in Minnesota Prehistory.
Technology - A look at the different technologies of Prehistoric Minnesotan's.


Southern Minnesota Prehistory by Michael Scullin

Little Theory - Although archaeologists have
a multitude of names for the prehistoric cultures of Minnesota there
were some broad patterns which describe the 10,000 years we know as
prehistory. The archaeological record, by no means complete, can provide
reasonably accurate accounts of what the people who lived here ate
and what types of tools they used. Beyond that we can only make educated
guesses (hypotheses) about their lives.


KEYWORDS: reading education conference U.S. Department of Education's Reading First Initiative successful readers five critical areas of reading instruction American Indian and Alaska Native students

SOURCE: Alliance for Education and Community Development, Inc. Press Release

To be held at:

The Westin at Horton Plaza

910 Broadway Circle

San Diego, CA 92101

Phone (800) WESTIN-1

AUGUST 7th- 2002 (7:00 p.m.) Reception

AUGUST 8th & 9th - 2002 (9a.m. - 4p.m.)

9 a.m. - 10 a.m Keynote Address

10:30 a.m. - 11:30 a.m. Mid-morning Breakout sessions (8)

1:30 p.m. - 2:30 p.m. 1st Afternoon Breakout sessions (8)

3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. 2nd Afternoon Breakout sessions (8)

This conference is designed to focus on the U.S. Department of Education's Reading First Initiative that calls for ALL students to become successful readers. Based on research and best instructional practices, the conference centers around the five critical areas of reading instruction identified by the National Reading Panel.

In the forty-eight breakout sessions over two days, you will learn the answers to the following critical questions:

    • Are Indian and Alaska Native Educators well equipped to implement effective research-based reading instruction?

    • Do we as Educational Leaders have the capacity to establish and sustain professional development plans that utilize best instructional practices?

    • Do we as Indian Educators and Para Educators have foundational knowledge and skills to implement the Reading First Initiative?

  • Are we ready to engage as partners in the national movement to improve reading achievement for ALL American Indian and Alaska Native students?

Leading reading experts and workshop leaders will provide theoretical foundations and "hands on" techniques and strategies to make your students successful readers!

Conference Registration Instructions can be found at

We encourage each of you, who receive this message, to share it with
those who work with American Indian and Alaska Native students.

Hotel Reservations:

The Westin at Horton Plaza

Phone(800) WESTIN-1 OR call (619) 239-2200

(To receive the preferential government rate, mention you are attending the Reading First Conference.)


For additional information, visit the
Alliance for Education and Community Development, Inc.
web page.

Alliance for Education and Community Development, Inc.

An American Indian 501 (c ) (3) Non-profit Corporation

633 Post Street, Ste. 444

San Francisco, CA 94109

Telephone: (415) 939-3745

Messages: (415) 210-1047

email: [email protected]

ROSEBUD -- The Lakota Studies staff at Sinte Gleska University has been
reviving a lost art as they host a Tipi Making Project on the Rosebud Indian

"Waasa Inaabidaa...We Look In All Directions" is a powerful in-depth portrayal of the second largest tribe in North America: the Anishinaabe/Ojibwe (Chippewa) nation.

The six-part series invites viewers through a portal of rich historical and contemporary scenes, never before seen on television, to experience Ojibwe life in the upper Great Lakes region.

When a filmmaker's directorial debut is as noteworthy and successful as Chris Eyre's 1998 award-winning Smoke Signals, it raises a high level of expectation for his next project as well as some trepidation.

Skins (Drama, color, no rating, 1 hour 27 minutes)

A story of conflict and eventual reconciliation between two Oglala Sioux brothers, ``Skins'' exposes the largely invisible reverse side of American prosperity by humanizing the scourge of alcoholism in dirt-poor Indian communities.

SOURCE: Press Release

WASHINGTON, D.C. ­ Thomas N. Slonaker, the senior official entrusted by Congress with overseeing reform of the Individual Indian Monies (IIM) trust, told a federal judge today that two Interior Department Secretaries and their top aides filed misleading reports with the court and did virtually nothing in the past two years to comply with orders from Congress and the judge to provide Indian trust beneficiaries with an accounting of their money. 

Spirit is a touching movie I had to go and see four times. This is the story of the Wild West as told from the heart of a mustang stallion during the encroachment of the Euro-Caucasians in the natural world west of the Mississippi.