Famous Seminole Chiefs, Warriors, and Medicine Men
Abiaka a.k.a. Sam Jones - Medicine man. His genius directed Seminole gains in several battles, including the 1837 ambush now known as the Battle of Okeechobee.
Benjamin Harjo, Jr. (born 1945) is an award-winning Absentee Shawnee / Seminole painter and printmaker from Oklahoma.
Billy Bowlegs (Holatamico) 1808- - The last Seminole chief of prominence to leave Florida and remove with his people to the west. Principal Seminole leader in the Third Seminole War (1855-1858). Bowlegs and his war-weary band surrendered on May 7, 1858. Thirty-eight warriors and eighty-five women and children, including Billy's wife, boarded the steamer, Grey Cloud, at Egmont Key to begin their journey to Indian territory. Bowlegs died soon after his arrival.
Chief Bowlegs (probably corrupted from Bolek). Not the same as Billy Bowlegs. An inferior Seminole chief who was brought temporarily into notice in 1812 during the Indian war on the Georgia frontier.
Hillis Hadjo a.k.a. Francis the Prophet (hilis ‘medicine’, hadsho ‘crazy’) - A noted Seminole leader in the early part of the 19th century, usually known among the whites as Francis the Prophet, and whose name is also recorded as Hidlis Hadjo, Hillishago, Hillishager, etc. He took an active part in the Seminole war, and is accused of having been one of the chief instigators of the second uprising.
Hornotlimed - A Seminole chief who came into notice chiefly through a single incident of the Seminole war of 1817-18. He resided at the Fowl Town, in northwest Florida, at the beginning of hostilities, but was forced to flee to Mikasuki. On Nov. 30, 1817, three vessels arrived at the mouth of Apalachicola River with supplies for the garrison farther up the stream, but on account of contrary winds were unable to ascend.
Lieutenant Scott was sent to their assistance with a boat and 40 men, who, on their return from the vessels, were ambushed by Hornotlimed and a band of warriors, all being killed except 6 soldiers, who jumped overboard and swam to the opposite shore.
Chief John Jumper (About 1820-) - Served as the head chief for the Confederate Seminoles during the Civil War. After the war, he continued as chief for about 10 years.
Micanopy (Head Chief) - A hereditary chief, who possessed large herds of cattle and horses and a hundred Negro slaves. As one of the most important chiefs in Florida, Micanopy fought against removal until the pressure of thousands of troops, disease, and starvation wiped out his band of warriors.
Neamathla - Considered a man of eloquence and influence among the Seminoles, advised his people not to accept the government plan to move. Governor William DuVal deposed him by refusing to recognize him as a chief of the Seminoles.
Osceola (a.k.a. William Powell) (Black Drink) - Osceola was among many Creeks who retreated to Florida after the Creek War (1813-1814) and joined the Seminoles. During the 1820s, Osceola became known as a successful hunter and war leader. His warriors defeated U.S. troops in several battles early in the Second Seminole War.
Tuko-See-Mathla (John Hicks) - This Seminole chief once saved a number of white men from being killed after they had been taken prisoner. When he supported the plan to move the Native Americans west he was killed by dissenting Seminoles.