Extinct Tribes A
Extinct Tribes, Forgotten Names, or Alternate Names of North American Indians
An alphabetical list of extinct native american indian tribes of the United States starting with A.
Each tribal profile explains who they were, where they lived, how they lived, an account of first contact with Europeans, population if known, and a brief explanation of what happed to them.
Believed to be Extinct or Absorbed Into Other Tribes
Ababco – An eastern Algonquian tribe or sub-tribe, this group originally lived on the Choptank River in Maryland when first encountered by Europeans. They were first mentioned by by Thomas Bacon in his Laws of Maryland, published in 1765, as having been connected with the Hutsawap and Tequassimoe, as a distinct tribe; however, later historians believed them to be a division of the Choptank.
They were not mentioned in John Smith’s documents of his exploration of Chesapeake Bay in the early 1600’s. By 1837 the entire tribe had dwindled to a few individuals of mixed Indian and African blood.
Abittibi – A little known Algonkin band whose habitat has been the shores of Abittibi Lake, in Ontario, Canada. The first recorded notice of them is in the Jesuit Relations for 1640. In the Jesuit Relations of 1660, the Iroquois warred upon them and two other tribes of the same area.
French explorer Daniel Greysolon Sieur du Lhut included them in a list of nations living north of Lake Superior in 1684. They were estimated by Chanvignerie in 1736 to be 140 warriors living with the Tětes de Boule. He mentions as totems — the partridge and the eagle. They were reported by the Canadian Indian Office to number 450 in 1878, after which date they are not officially mentioned.
Accohanoc – A tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy, they formerly lived on the river of the same name, in Accomac and Northampton Counties of Virginia. They were described as having 40 warriors in 1608. Later, they became mixed with African-Americans and what was left of them were driven off during the Nat Turner insurrection in about 1833.
Achiligonan – A tribe or band, who, between 1640 and 1670, were living on the north shore of Lake Huron, about the mouth of French River and westward nearly to Sault Ste Marie. In 1670 they were attached to the mission at the Sault. In the Jesuit Relation of 1640 their position is given on the north shore of Lake Huron, at the mouth of French river.
The Amikwa are mentioned in the same connection as residing on this stream. In 1658 they appear to be placed farther north on the river, and it is stated that they trailed with the Cree. In 1670 they are said to have been attached to the mission of Sault Ste Marie, but only as going there to fish. It is probable that they were a Chippewa or a Nipissing band.
Acolapissa – Of Choctaw lineage this band formerly lived on Lake Ponchartrain, about the coast lagoons, and on the Mississippi River, in Louisiana. Early French writers derived the name from the Choctaw káklo pisa, meaning “those who listen and see.” The name appears to have been used by an early author; to include several tribes — the Bayogoula, Mugniasha, and others. They were said to have had six or seven different villages, but, suffered severely from an epidemic about 1700.They later settled north of New Orleans and what was left of them were absorbed into the Houma tribe.
Acquintanacsnak – A tribe or sub-tribe which English explorer, Captain John Smith encountered living on the west bank of Patuxent River in present day St Mary’s County, Maryland. They lived near to and were allied with the Patuxent and Mattapanient tribes, and were described as having about 200 warriors within the three tribes. The principal village bore the tribal name and was situated at the mouth of a small creek.
Captain Smith described them as “the most civil to give entertainment.” Although they had a chief, it is doubtful whether they formed a distinct tribe and may have been a band or division of the Patuxent.
The name later dropped from documentation without indication of the extinction of the people, very likely because subsequent and more correct information showed that they were a division of another well-known tribe.
Acuera – Part of the Timucuan linguistic division of the Muskhogean family, the Acuera were located at the headwaters of the Ocklawaha River in Florida. They were first noted by Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto, in a letter written at Tampa Bay to the Civil Cabildo of Santiago de Cuba. De Soto described where they lived as being “a large town where with much convenience we might winter.”
Though the Spaniards did not pass through the village, while they were at Ocale, they sent to Acuera for corn. The name appears later in French explorer, René Goulaine de Laudonnière’s narrative of the second French expedition to Florida in 1564-65, as a tribe allied with the Utina.
Later, they were noted briefly in Spanish documents and in 1604, the an encounter between the tribe and Spanish troops. By 1655, there were two Acuera missions — San Luis and Santa Lucia, both of which had disappeared by 1680. The inland position of the Acuera is partly responsible for the few early descriptions of them.
Later, the tribe was probably gathered into the “Pueblo de Timucua,” which stood near St. Augustine, Florida in 1736, and was finally removed to the Mosquito Lagoon and Halifax River in Volusia County. The tribe is entirely extinct today.
Adai - Alternate name: Nateo. A tribe of the Caddo Confederacy, they spoke a dialect closely related to that of the Kadohadacho, Hainai, and Anadarko. The tribe-was first encountered in 1529 by Cabeza de Vaca, who called them Atayo, and said they were living inland from the Gulf of Mexico.
Adshusheer – A tribe associated with the Eno and Shakori in North Carolina in 1701. They were thought to have been located near present-day Durham, North Carolina. The Adshusheer were probably absorbed by one of the tribes with which they were associated.
Affagoula - A small village of Indians, who were, in 1783, located on the Mississippi River 8 miles above Point Coupè in Louisiana.
Agawam (or Agawom) – A name of frequent occurrence in south New England; Long Island, New York; and at least three villages or tribes in Massachusetts. The most important of these villages was located near present-day Ipswich, Massachusetts. However, the site was sold by the chief in 1638. This band was part of the Pennacook Confederacy, and was almost extinct in 1658. However, as late as 1726 there were still three families living near Wigwam Hill.
The second tribe or band of that name had its chief town on Long hill, near Springfield, Massachusetts. Springfield was sold in 1635 and the Indian town was in existence in 1675. This tribe was commonly classed with the Pacomtuc. The third was about Wareham, Massachusetts, the site of which was sold in 1655. It was probably subject to the Wampanoag, but joined in the plot against the English in 1621.
Ahantchuyuks (French Prairie Indians, Hanchiuke, Ahántchuyuk, Pudding River Indians) – A small tribe in Oregon, relatives of the Kalapuya. Like many other West Coast Indian tribes, the Ahantchuyuk Indians were relocated to the Siletz and Grand Ronde Reservations during the 1800's, where they merged with other native peoples and their languages rapidly vanished. The Ahantchuyuk language is no longer spoken, but is believed to have been a Central Kalapuyan dialect. They are now known as the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon and the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians of Oregon.
Ahwajiaway (Minetare,) In 1805, they numbered 200. In 1820 they were camped in S. W. Missouri 3 miles above the Mandans.
Ais or Ays – A tribe who once inhabited the Atlantic Coast of Florida, the primarily lived in villages of what is now called the Indian River. Little is known of their language or origins. They were noted by Jonathan Dickinson, who’s party had been shipwrecked in 1696. By this time, they had had considerable contact with Europeans and regarded the Spanish as friends, but all others as enemies.
They did not survive much longer as, after 1700, settlers in Carolina started raiding the Ais to capture slaves. By 1743, when the Spanish established a mission among them, the Ais numbers had declined dramatically by slave raids and disease. They were gone from the area by 1760. Ais Moundbuilders
Ajoues or Ayouas (Towoha' or Iowa Indians) – The Ajoues were once located on the site that is now Locust Grove, Iowa. They were almost wiped out by the Indian Wars with Fox nations. 1,100 lived South of the Missouri, and North of the Padoucas in 1760. In a message to Congress after the purchase of Louisiana, in 1803, President Jefferson states, "On the River Moingona or Riviere de Moine are the Ajoues, a nation originally from the Missouri."
In Alcedo's Spanish Geography, under the name of Ajoues, they are mentioned as a tribe of Louisiana, for whose government a garrison had been kept on the Missouri. In Nicholas J. Santoro's Atlas of the Indian Tribes of North America and the Clash of Cultures, they are mentioned in Iowa.
Akonapi – A people mentioned in the ancient Walam Olum record of the Delawares (Brinton, Lenape Legends, 190, 231, 1885), with whom they fought during their migrations. Brinton, who identities them with the Akowini of the same tradition, thinks it probable that they lived immediately North of the Ohio River in Ohio or Indiana. He regards Akowini as “correspondent” with Sinako, and Towakon with Towako; the latter he identifies with the Ottawa, called by the Delawares Taway. If this identification is correct, it is likely that the Akonapi were the Sinago branch of the Ottawa.
Alabama or Alibamu – A Muskogean tribe of the southern United States, the tribe lived primarily within the state that now bears their name. They, along with other Muskogean speaking tribes, the Creek, Hitchiti, and Coushatta, formed the Creek Confederacy. They and the closely allied Coushatta migrated from Alabama and Mississippi to the Red River in Texas in 1764, under pressure from white settlers.
The two tribes merged and share reservation land. Although the Alabama tribe was terminated in the 1950s, it achieved federal recognition in 1987 as the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Today, Its 550 members have about 4,500 acres of reservation.
Alansar or Alannar or Fall Indians – According to the Canadians, the Fall Indians of Canada were located between the Saskatchewan River and South Branch. Drake gives their location at the falls of the Kooskooskie River (Clearwater River) under the alternate name of Alannar or Alansar, at the headwaters of the Saskatchewan River and South Branch,with an estimated population of 2,000 in 1804.
These Fall Indians should not be confused with the Atsina (Gros Ventre) on the Milk River of Montana, or the Clowewalla around the falls of the Willamette River in Oregon, who are also called Fall Indians, also according to Drake.
Alchedoma – A former Yuman tribe which were found living in eight villages in 1604 by Juan de Onate below the mouth of the Gila on the Colorado River. Later, they were living along the Colorado River in Arizona and California and were estimated to have numbered about 2,500 people. They were allegedly enemies with the Mohave tribe and were absorbed by the Maricopa Indians, whom they joined before fleeing the Colorado River from the Mohave.
Aliatan – A Ute name applied to many Shoshoni tribes, including the Shoshoni proper. To the Ute, it represented the language they spoke.In 1805 the Lewis and Clark journal noted there was one large tribe in the Rocky Mountains that was divided into three smaller sub-tribes. He called them the Aliatan and noted he got his information from the local Indians while he was staying with the Mandans. He named the Snake Indians and Shoshone Indians as two of the three Aliatan tribes.
Allakaweah – This tribe or band was first encountered by Lewis and Clark in 1805, who gave them the name Allakaweah, which meant “Paunch Indians.” Living on the Yellowstone and Bighorn Rivers in Montana, they were estimated to have number about 2,300 people. As this area was occupied by the Crow Indians at the time, they were thought to have been a band of that tribe.
Alliklik – The Alliklik belonged to the Californian group of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, their closest relatives probably being the Serrano. They lived on the upper Santa Clara River in several villages, along with the Serrano, Vanyume, and Kitanemuk. The Alliklik numbered about 3,500 in 1770, but had been nearly extinct by the early 1900’s.
Alsea (Alsi, Alcea) – A Yaquina tribe formerly occupying a small territory at the mouth of Alsea River in western Oregon.Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Indians belonging to the Yakonan stock at 6,000 in 1780. The census of 1910 returned 29 Indians under this name, and that of 1930 only 9 under the entire Yakonan stock. They are now part of the Confederated Siletz Indians of Oregon.
Amacano – A tribe or band perhaps connected with the Yamasee which lived on the Apalachee Coast of Florida in 1674 with Chine and Caparaz tribes. At that time the three groups numbered about 300 people.
Amahami – According to tribal history, the Amahami had always lived along the upper Missouri River. Although they were culturally and linguistically similar to the Hidatsa, they were closer to the Mandan. They were recognized as a distinct tribe by Lewis and Clark in 1804, but had practically lost their identity 30 years later.
In Lewis and Clark’s time their village was at the mouth of Knife River in North Dakota and they were estimated to have about 50 warriors. Disease caused survivors to merge with the Hidatsa. Today, the Arikara, Hidatsa, and Mandan have merged to become the Three Affiliated Tribes of Fort Berthold.
Amaseconti – A small division of the Abnaki tribe who formerly resided in Maine. They took part with the other Abnaki in the early Indian wars against the English and joined in the treaty made at Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1713. Some of them lingered in their old homes until about 1797, when the last family moved to St Francis, lower Canada, where they retained their distinctive name until 1809.
Amikwa – An Algonquian speaking tribe found by the French living on the north shore of Lake Huron, where they remained until about 1672. They were said to have been allies of the Nipissing tribe and once inhabited the shores of Lake Nipissing in Ontario, Canada. After disease and attacks by the Iroquois, the tribe was much reduced and moved to various locations including Lake Superior and Lake Michigan.
Anadarko – A tribe of the Caddo Confederacy, they were encountered by the Moscoso Expedition in 1542 living in villages scattered along Trinity and Brazos Rivers in Texas. A Spanish mission was established among the Anadarko early in the 18th century, but was soon abandoned. Disease and tribal wars forced them to the northeast and in 1812, about 200 of them were reported living on the Sabine River. They are now incorporated with the Caddo, many of whom live in western Oklahoma.
Ancient Puebloans – Often called, Anasazi, a Navajo word meaning “The Ancient Ones,” their decendants, including the Hopi, Zuni and the Puebloans, prefer the name Ancient Puebloans. These Indians lived from A.D. 1 to the 14th century in the Four Corners region of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Arizona. They were a highly cultured tribe, known mostly for their great creativity and their building of many of the ancient cliff-dwellings that can still be seen today.
Aondironon – A branch of the Neutral tribe whose territory bordered on that of the Huron in western Ontario, Canada. In 1648, owing to an alleged breach of neutrality, the chief town of this tribe was attacked by 300 Iroquois, mainly Seneca, who killed a large number of its inhabitants and carried away many others into captivity.
Apalachicola or Apalachikola - Plural of Apalachee. From at least A.D. 1000, a group of farming Indians who lived on that river in northwest Florida. Apalachikola merely means Apalachee People in the languages of the Gulf Coast. Apalache means “People bearing torches” in Itsate-Creek. They did not originally speak Muskogee.
They were probably related to the Apalache or Palache of the Georgia Mountains, but this is not certain.Prior to European contact, there were probably at least 50,000-60,000 Apalachees.They were removed to Red River in 1764. Apalachees of Northwest Florida from Mission San Luis
Appomattoc or Apamatuks – A tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy who spoke the Algonquian language, they formerly lived on the lower Appomattox River in Virginia. They were first encountered English explorers in 1607 and the following year were described as having 60 warriors. Their principal village, which bore the same name, was burned by the English in 1611. As the Appomattoc population dwindled, they were vulnerable to attack from traditional western enemy tribes.
In 1691, they petitioned to live among the English for protection. By 1705, they were described as having only about seven families and by 1722 they were extinct, having merged with other tribes.
Aquackanonk – A band of the Lenape Indians who lived on the Passaic River in northern New Jersey when first encountered. Their lands were acquired by Jacques Cortelyou, in 1676 who established a settlement of Dutch traders two years later. A township later took the name, but, by then the Indians were gone.
Armouchiquois or Malecite (Marachite) – There is much confusion as to who these people were, but the name was given by the Abnaki Indians to the country of the Indians of the New England coast south of the Sacro River in Maine.
In 1605, when French explorer, Samuel de Champlain visited a large native village at the mouth of the Saco River, his Etchemin guides called the people Armouchiquois and called the village Chouacoit. It was a large, permanent, palisaded settlement, and the area was filled with small native hamlets, all cultivating corn, bean, and squash fields.
In 1607, Chouacoit was hit hard in a raid by the Souriquoi and their allies. Thus began a war that lasted until about 1615, apparently ending with disastrous losses for the Armouchiquois. In 1616, the village was hit hard by disease and most of its inhabitants took sick and died. By 1631, the village was gone.
In Joseph Williason’s History of Maine, published in 1832, he said they were the same as the Malecite tribe living on the St. John’s River, but Champlain had earlier said that their language differed from the Micmac and the Etchimin bands which were also of the Malecite tribe. Some Frenchmen used the term to describe several tribes that the English included under the term “Massachusetts.”
In Francis Parkman’s book, Jesuits in North America, published in 1867, the term included the Algonquian tribes of New England, including the Mohegan, Pequot, Massachusett, Narraganset and others who were in in a chronic state of war with the tribes of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
Arosaguntacook – Also called Androscoggin, Amoscoggin, and other variations, they were a tribe of the Abenaki Confederacy, who formerly lived in the Androscoggin River watershed, located in present-day southern Maine and northern New Hampshire.
Their primary village was located in in Androscoggin County, Maine in a village that bore the same name on Androscoggin River. Together with the Pigwacket, they formed the southern-most of the Abenaki tribes, and were therefore one the first in contact with the English colonists of New England. Living on the edge of the first English settlements in Maine, they took part in King Philip’s War in 1675.
They were later removed to St Francis, Canada, soon after the Abnaki defeat in the Battle of Pequawket at present day Fryeburg, Maine in 1725. It is assumed that by the 18th century, they had been absorbed by neighboring tribes.
Ascahcutoner – A tribe belonging to the Sioux-Osage family, they were also said to have been associated with the Teton Sioux.
Assegun – A tribe that originally occupied the region around Mackinaw and Sault Ste Marie, Michigan, they were later driven southward by the Anishinaabe and Ottawa into Lower Michigan. They were once thought to be connected to the Mascouten, but are now believed to have been a Siouan tribe. The name probably derives from Anishinaabe word meaning “Black Bass.”
Possibly Extinct? Some May be Canadian tribes? Or Alternate Names?
ALICHE, Near Nacogdoches in 1805, then nearly extinct; spoke Caddo.
ALUGHQUAGA. On E. branch Susquehannah River; 150 in 1768; since extinct.
AMALISTES, (Algonkins,) once on St. Lawrence; 500 in 1760.
ANASAGUNTAKOOK, (Abenaki,) on sources Androscoggin, in Maine, till 1750.
ANDASTES, once on South shore Lake Erie, S. W. Seneca, who destroyed them in 1672.
APACHES, (Lapane,) between Rio del Norte and sources of Nuaces river; 3,500 in 1817.
APPALOUSA, aboriginal in the country of their name; but 40 men in 1805.
AQUANUSCHIONI, the name by which the Iroquois knew themselves.
ARAPAHAS, South side main Canada River; 4,000 in 1836, on Kanzas River.
ARRENAMUSE, On St. Antonio River, near its mouth, in Texas ; 120 in 1818.
ATENAS, in a village with the Faculli in 1836, west of the Rocky Mountains.
Atfalati - Alternate names: Falatah, Kalapuya, Tfalati, Wapato
ATHAPASCOW, about the shores of the great lake of their name. ATNAS, (Ojibewas,) next S. of the Athapascow, about lat. 57° N., in 1790.
ATTACAPAS, in a district of their name in Louisiana; but 50 men in 1805.
ATTAPULGAS, (Seminoles,) on Little r., a branch of Oloklikana, 1820, and 220 souls.
ATTIKAMIGUES, in N. of Canada, destroyed by pestilence in 1670.
Awaswas - Alternate name: Santa Cruz
AYAUAIS, 40 leagues up the Des Moines, S. E. side; 800 in 1805.
AYUTANS, 8,000 in 1820, S. W. the Missouri, near the Rocky Mountains.
Aberginian is a collective term used by the early settlers on Massachusetts Bay for the tribes to the north. They were described in 1654 as consisting of the Massachusett, Wippanap, and Tarratine tribes.
The Acolapissa disappeared as a separate tribe during 1765, and their subsequent history is identical with the Houma with whom they merged. The Houma remained in Ascension Parish until 1776 when they were overrun by settlement. They sold their land to two French Creoles that year, but small groups of them remained in the vicinity until 1840. However, by 1785 the majority had moved southwest and concentrated in La Fourche and Terrebonne Parishes (Houma, Louisiana) about 25 miles from New Orleans.