Consensus Classification of California Indian Languages

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Here is a chart of the 88 languages indigenous to the state of California. Hypothesized MACRO-UNITS are in bold caps and italicized, FAMILIESin bold caps only, SUBGROUPS are in in small caps, individual languages in boldface, and dialects in italics:

 

HOKAN STOCK (Proposed)

Chimariko

Karuk

Esselen

Salinan

Washo

SHASTAN (4 languages)

Shasta

Okwanuchu

New River Shasta

Konomihu

PALAIHNIHAN (2 languages)

Achumawi

Atsugewi

POMOAN (7 languages)

Southeastern Pomo

Eastern Pomo

Northeastern Pomo

WESTERN BRANCH

Northern Pomo

SOUTHERN GROUP

Central Pomo

Southern Pomo

Kashaya Pomo

YANA (2 languages)

Northern Yana (incl. Central Yana)

Yahi (Southern Yana)

YUMAN-COCHIMÍ (14 languages)

YUMAN BRANCH

Kiliwa

Paipai (“Akwa’ala”)

CALIFORNIA-DELTA GROUP

Ipai (Northern Diegueño)

Kumeyaay

Tipai (Southern Diegueño)

Cocopa

RIVER GROUP

Quechan (Yuma)

Halchidhoma (Maricopa)

Mojave

COCHIMÍ BRANCH (Peninsular Yuman)

NORTHERN COCHIMÍ

Julgrepa

Borjeño

Ignacieño

SOUTHERN COCHIMÍ

Cadegomeño

Javiereño

PENUTIAN STOCK (Proposed)

MAIDUAN (3 languages)

Maidu

Konkow

Nisenan

PLATEAU PENUTIAN

Klamath-Modoc

UTIAN (MIWOK-COSTANOAN)

MIWOK (7 languages)

EASTERN MIWOK

SIERRA MIWOK

Northern Sierra Miwok

Central Sierra Miwok

Southern Sierra Miwok

Plains Miwok

Saclan (Bay Miwok)

WESTERN MIWOK

Coast Miwok

Lake Miwok

COSTANOAN (“Ohlone,” 5 languages)

Karkin

Northern Costanoan

Chalon (“Soledad”)

SOUTHERN COSTANOAN

Mutsun (“San Juan Bautista”)

Rumsen

WINTUAN (4 languages)

Wintu

Nomlaki

Patwin

Southern Patwi

YOKUTSAN (3 languages)

Nim Yokuts (includes Northern, Tulare

Lake, and Foothill tribal dialects)

Buenavista

Poso Creek

ATHABASKAN FAMILY

(“Na-Dene,” 4 languages)

Tolowa

Hupa (includes Whilkut & Chilula dialects)

Mattole

Eel River (Sinkyone, Nongatl, Lassik,

Wailaki, & Cahto dialects)

ALGIC FAMILY (“Algonkian,” 2 languages)

Wiyot

Yurok

CHUMASHAN FAMILY (6 languages)

NORTHERN CHUMASH

Obispeño

CENTRAL CHUMASH

Purisimeño

Ineseño

Barbareño

Ventureño

ISLAND CHUMASH

Cruzeño

UTO-AZTECAN FAMILY (14 languages)

Tubatulabal

TAKIC BRANCH

Gabrielino (“Tongva,” includes Fernandeño)

Tataviam (“Alliklik”)

SERRAN GROUP

Kitanemuk

Serrano (includes Vanyumé)

CUPAN GROUP

Cahuilla

Cupeño

Luiseño

Juaneño

NUMIC BRANCH

WESTERN NUMIC

Mono

Monache

Owen’s Valley Paiute

Northern Paiute

CENTRAL NUMIC

Panamint (“Koso,” “California Shoshone”)

SOUTHERN NUMIC

Kawaiisu

Chemehuevi (dialect of Ute)

YUKIAN FAMILY (Considered by some linguists to be part of the “Gulf” Macro-unit)

Yuki

Wappo