Alaska Indian Reservations

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The Metlakatla Indian Community is the only Native Reservation in Alaska. There are many other indian tribes in Alaska,  but most Alaskan natives have a different land system than the tribes in the continental US.


 

There is only one Alaska Indian Reservation

Alaska Natives were not given title to land under the Dawes Act but were instead treated under the Alaska Native Allotment Act until it was repealed in 1971.

Another characteristic difference is that Alaska Native tribal governments do not have the power to collect taxes for business transacted on tribal land, per the United States Supreme Court decision in Alaska v. Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government because Alaska Natives (except for Tsimshians) do not hold reservations.

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, commonly abbreviated ANCSA, was signed into law by President Richard M. Nixon on December 18, 1971, the largest land claims settlement in United States history. ANCSA was intended to resolve the long-standing issues surrounding aboriginal land claims in Alaska, as well as to stimulate economic development throughout Alaska.

In 1968, the Atlantic-Richfield Company discovered oil at Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic coast, catapulting the issue of land ownership into headlines. In order to lessen the difficulty of drilling at such a remote location and transporting the oil to the lower 48 states, the best solution seemed to be building a pipeline to carry the oil across Alaska to the port of Valdez, built on the ruins of the previous town. At Valdez, the oil would be loaded onto tanker ships and sent by water to the contiguous states.

The plan was approved, but a permit to construct the pipeline, which would cross lands involved in the native dispute, could not be granted until the Native claims had been settled.

With major petroleum dollars on the line, there was a new urgency for an agreement, and, in 1971, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was signed into law by President Nixon, which abrogated Native claims to aboriginal lands. In return, they received up to 44 million acres (180,000 km²) of land (1/9th of the land in Alaska) and were paid $963 million.

The land and money were divided among regional, urban, and village corporations. The settlement compensated the Natives for the collaborative use of their lands and opened the way for all Alaskans to profit from oil, one of the state’s largest natural resources.

The settlement extinguished Alaska Native claims to the land by transferring titles to twelve Alaska Native regional corporations and over 200 local village corporations. A thirteenth regional corporation was later created for Alaska Natives who no longer resided in Alaska.

 

The Tsimshians were not included in the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act

 

The Tsimshians did not receive any payment for thier lands. They expressed an interest in preserving their villages and fishing sites on the Skeena and Nass Rivers as early as 1879, but were not able to begin negotiating a treaty until July 1983.

A decade later, fourteen bands in Alaska and in British Columbia, Canada  united to negotiate under the collective name of the Tsimshian Tribal Council. A framework agreement was signed in 1997, and the Tsimshian nation continues to negotiate with the BC Treaty Commission to reach an Agreement-in-Principle.
 
Instead of large reservations, Alaskan Natives live in mostly small tribal communities ruled by a village corporation. They are:

 

  1. Village of Afognak
  2. Native Village of Akhiok
  3. Akiachak Native Community
  4. Akiak Native Community
  5. Native Village of Akutan
  6. Village of Alakanuk
  7. Alatna Village
  8. Native Village of Aleknagik
  9. Algaaciq Native Village (St. Mary’s)
  10. Allakaket Village
  11. Native Village of Ambler
  12. Village of Anaktuvuk Pass
  13. Yupiit of Andreafski
  14. Angoon Community Association
  15. Village of Aniak
  16. Anvik Village
  17. Arctic Village (See Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government)
  18. Native Village of Atka
  19. Asa’carsarmiut Tribe (formerly Native Village of Mountain Village)
  20. Atqasuk Village (Atkasook)
  21. Village of Atmautluak
  22. Native Village of Barrow Inupiat Traditional Government (formerly Native Village of Barrow)
  23. Beaver Village
  24. Native Village of Belkofski
  25. Village of Bill Moore’s Slough
  26. Birch Creek Village
  27. Native Village of Brevig Mission
  28. Native Village of Buckland
  29. Native Village of Cantwell
  30. Native Village of Chanega (aka Chenega)
  31. Chalkyitsik Village
  32. Village of Chefornak
  33. Chevak Native Village
  34. Chickaloon Native Village
  35. Native Village of Chignik
  36. Native Village of Chignik Lagoon
  37. Chignik Lake Village
  38. Chilkat Indian Village (Kluckwan)
  39. Chilkoot Indian Association (Haines)
  40. Chinik Eskimo Community (Golovin)
  41. Native Village of Chistochina
  42. Native Village of Chitina
  43. Native Village of Chuathbaluk (Russian Mission, Kuskokwim)
  44. Chuloonawick Native Village
  45. Circle Native Community
  46. Village of Clark’s Point
  47. Native Village of Council
  48. Craig Community Association
  49. Village of Crooked Creek
  50. Curyung Tribal Council (formerly Native Village of Dillingham)
  51. Native Village of Deering
  52. Native Village of Diomede (AKA Inalik)
  53. Village of Dot Lake
  54. Douglas Indian Association
  55. Native Village of Eagle
  56. Native Village of Eek
  57. Egegik Village
  58. Eklutna Native Village
  59. Native Village of Ekuk
  60. Ekwok Village
  61. Native Village of Elim
  62. Emmonak Village
  63. Evansville Village (AKA Bettles Field)
  64. Native Village of Eyak (Cordova)
  65. Native Village of False Pass
  66. Native Village of Fort Yukon
  67. Native Village of Gakona
  68. Galena Village (AKA Louden Village)
  69. Native Village of Gambell
  70. Native Village of Georgetown
  71. Native Village of Goodnews Bay
  72. Organized Village of Grayling (AKA Holikachuk)
  73. Gulkana Village
  74. Native Village of Hamilton
  75. Healy Lake Village
  76. Holy Cross Village
  77. Hoonah Indian Association
  78. Native Village of Hooper Bay
  79. Hughes Village
  80. Huslia Village
  81. Hydaburg Cooperative Association
  82. Igiugig Village
  83. Village of Iliamna
  84. Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope
  85. Iqurmuit Traditional Council (formerly Native Village of Russian Mission)
  86. Ivanoff Bay Village
  87. Kaguyak Village
  88. Organized Village of Kake
  89. Kaktovik Village (AKA Barter Island)
  90. Village of Kalskag
  91. Village of Kaltag
  92. Native Village of Kanatak
  93. Native Village of Karluk
  94. Organized Village of Kasaan
  95. Native Village of Kasigluk
  96. Kenaitze Indian Tribe
  97. Ketchikan Indian Corporation
  98. Native Village of Kiana
  99. Agdaagux Tribe of King Cove
  100. King Island Native Community
  101. Native Village of Kipnuk
  102. Native Village of Kivalina
  103. Klawock Cooperative Association
  104. Native Village of Kluti Kaah (AKA Copper Center)
  105. Knik Tribe
  106. Native Village of Kobuk
  107. Kokhanok Village
  108. New Koliganek Village Council (formerly Koliganek Village)
  109. Native Village of Kongiganak
  110. Village of Kotlik
  111. Native Village of Kotzebue
  112. Native Village of Koyuk
  113. Koyukuk Native Village
  114. Organized Village of Kwethluk
  115. Native Village of Kwigillingok
  116. Native Village of Kwinhagak (AKA Quinhagak)
  117. Native Village of Larsen Bay
  118. Levelock Village Lesnoi Village (AKA Woody Island)
  119. Lime Village
  120. Village of Lower Kalskag
  121. Manley Hot Springs Village
  122. Manokotak Village
  123. Native Village of Marshall (AKA Fortuna Ledge)
  124. Native Village of Mary’s Igloo
  125. McGrath Native Village
  126. Native Village of Mekoryuk
  127. Mentasta Traditional Council (formerly Mentasta Lake Village)
  128. Metlakatla Indian Community, Annette Island Reserve
  129. Native Village of Minto
  130. Naknek Native Village
  131. Native Village of Nanwalek (AKA English Bay)
  132. Native Village of Napaimute
  133. Native Village of Napakiak
  134. Native Village of Napaskiak
  135. Native Village of Nelson Lagoon
  136. Nenana Native Association
  137. New Stuyahok Village
  138. Newhalen Village
  139. Newtok Village
  140. Native Village of Nightmute
  141. Nikolai Village
  142. Native Village of Nikolski
  143. Ninilchik Village
  144. Native Village of Noatak
  145. Nome Eskimo Community
  146. Nondalton Village
  147. Noorvik Native Community
  148. Northway Village
  149. Native Village of Nuiqsut (AKA Nooiksut)
  150. Nulato Village
  151. Native Village of Nunapitchuk
  152. Village of Ohogamiut
  153. Village of Old Harbor
  154. Orutsararmuit Native Village (AKA Bethel)
  155. Oscarville Traditional Village
  156. Native Village of Ouzinkie
  157. Native Village of Paimiut
  158. Pauloff Harbor Village
  159. Pedro Bay Village
  160. Native Village of Perryville
  161. Petersburg Indian Association
  162. Native Village of Pilot Point
  163. Pilot Station Traditional Village
  164. Native Village of Pitka’s Point
  165. Platinum Traditional Village
  166. Native Village of Point Hope
  167. Native Village of Point Lay
  168. Native Village of Port Graham
  169. Native Village of Port Heiden
  170. Native Village of Port Lions
  171. Portage Creek Village (AKA Ohgsenakale)
  172. Pribilof Islands Aleut Communities of St. Paul & St. George Island
  173. Qagan Toyagungin Tribe of Sand Point Village
  174. Rampart Village
  175. Village of Red Devil
  176. Native Village of Ruby
  177. Village of Salamatoff
  178. Organized Village of Saxman
  179. Native Village of Savoonga
  180. Saint George (See Pribilof Islands Aleut Communities of St. Paul & St. George Islands)
  181. Native Village of Saint Michael
  182. Saint Paul (See Pribilof Islands Aleut Communities of St. Paul & St. George Islands)
  183. Native Village of Scammon Bay
  184. Native Village of Selawik
  185. Seldovia Village Tribe
  186. Shageluk Native Village
  187. Native Village of Shaktoolik
  188. Native Village of Sheldon’s Point
  189. Native Village of Shishmaref
  190. Native Village of Shungnak
  191. Sitka Tribe of Alaska
  192. Skagway Village
  193. Village of Sleetmute
  194. Village of Solomon
  195. South Naknek Village
  196. Stebbins Community Association
  197. Native Village of Stevens
  198. Village of Stony River
  199. Takotna Village
  200. Native Village of Tanacross
  201. Native Village of Tanana
  202. Native Village of Tatitlek
  203. Native Village of Tazlina
  204. Telida Village
  205. Native Village of Teller
  206. Native Village of Tetlin
  207. Central Council of the Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes
    1. Traditional Village of Togiak
    2. Native Village of Toksook Bay
    3. Tuluksak Native Community
    4. Native Village of Tuntutuliak
    5. Native Village of Tununak
    6. Twin Hills Village
    7. Native Village of Tyonek
    8. Ugashik Village
    9. Umkumiute Native Village
    10. Native Village of Unalakleet
    11. Qawalangin Tribe of Unalaska
    12. Native Village of Unga
    13. Village of Venetie (See Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government)
    14. Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government (Arctic Village and Village of Venetie)
    15. Village of Wainwright
    16. Native Village of Wales
    17. Native Village of White Mountain
    18. Wrangell Cooperative Association
    19. Yakutat Tlingit Tribe