3 Mohawk Kings and 1 Mahican Indian King in North America

Generally, native americans in what would become the United States and Canada didn’t have royalty such as kings, but there were rare exceptions. There  were three Mohawk chiefs of the Iroquois Confederacy and a Mahican of the Algonquian peoples who were called Kings.

While these four Iroquois were not the first American Indians to visit England (Pocahontas had come in 1616), they were the first to be treated as heads of state. 

Battle of Quebec, 1759

Battle of Quebeck 1759

Following the successful capture of Louisbourg in 1758, British leaders began planning for a strike against Quebec the next year.The Battle of Quebec was fought September 13, 1759, during the French & Indian War (1754-1763).

Siege of Louisborg – King George’s War (1744–1748)

King George’s War is the European name given to the operations that formed the 1744–1748 War of the Austrian Succession. It was the third of the four French and Indian Wars. Also known as the  War of Jenkins’ Ear, it officially began when a Spanish commander chopped off the ear of English merchant captain Robert Jenkins and told him to take that to his king, George II.

The  Siege of Louisbourg  was the major battle in this war that took place on North American soil. Loisbourg was the capital of the French province of Île-Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island).

Indian Tribes Involved in the French and Indian War

Indians who fought in the French and Indian War

The French and Indian War (called the Seven Years’ War in Europe) was fought from 1754-1763.  The French and Indian War was the last of four major colonial wars between the British, the French, and their Native American allies for control of North America.

It was the first North American global war, fought in North America, India, Prussia, Austria and other European countries, Russia, and West Africa. During the fighting that occurred on North American soil, both sides often had Indian allies. Sometimes factions of one tribe fought on both sides. Here is a brief explanation of who fought on what side.

Battle of Lake George

The Battle of Lake George took place September 8, 1755, during the French & Indian War (1754-1763) fought between the French and British. About 200 Mohawk warriors fought with Sir William Johnson and 1,500 men for the British against Jean Erdman, Baron Dieskau, 2,800 frenchmen, and 700 allied Indians, including Mohawks from Canada, for the French.

The Mohawks and British won this battle, but at a steep cost.

French and Indian War, 1758-1763

Johnson sparing Baron Dieskau's life after the Battle of Lake George. Public Domain Photo

For 1758, the British government, now headed by the Duke of Newcastle as prime minister and William Pitt as secretary of state, turned its attention to recovering from the previous years’ reverses in North America. To accomplish this, Pitt devised a three-prong strategy which called for British troops to move against Fort Duquesne in Pennsylvania, Fort Carillon on Lake Champlain, and the fortress of Louisbourg.

French and Indian War, 1754-1757


The French and Indian War began in 1754 as British and French forces clashed in the wilderness of North America. Two years later, the conflict spread to Europe where it became known as the Seven Years’ War. In many ways an extension of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), the conflict saw a shifting of alliances with Britain joining with Prussia while France allied with Austria. The first war fought on a global scale, it saw battles in Europe, North America, Africa, India, and the Pacific. Concluding in 1763, the French & Indian/Seven Years’ War cost France the bulk of its North American territory.

How Black Seminoles Found Freedom from Slavery in Florida

Seminole Indians in traditional dress.

Black Seminoles were enslaved Africans and African Americans who, beginning in the late 17th century fled plantations in the southern American colonies and joined with the newly-formed Seminole tribe in Spanish-owned Florida. From the late 1690s until Florida became a U.S. territory in 1821, thousands of Native Americans and runaway slaves fled what is now the southeastern United States, heading not to the north, but rather to the relatively open promise of the Florida peninsula.

Seneca War Chief Corn Planter

Cornplanter(born between 1732 and 1746–February 18, 1836), known in the Seneca language as  Gaiänt’wakê (Gyantwachia – ″the planter″) or Kaiiontwa’kon (Kaintwakon – “By What One Plants”), was also known by his white name, John Abeel III. He was a Seneca war chief and diplomat of the Wolf clan.

Cornstalk, Shawnee Chief

Shawnee Chief Cornstalk

A great deal about Cornstalk, a Shawnee chief, has been written, referring to him by at least three names. He was born ca 1720 in one of the Shawnee villages in the drainage of the upper Susquehanna River. Cornstalk is said to have been born in western Pennsylvania at least by 1720, but some sources say 1708, 1710, or 1715 and his current grave marker says 1727. He moved with his family when he was about 10 to Ohio.

At that time, the Shawnees were undergoing another of their migrations and his family moved to Ohio River country on it’s Scioto River tributary, in what is now southern Ohio.

By the end of the French and Indian War in the early 1760’s, he had become a principal leader of the Tribe and remained so until he was murdered by whites at Fort Randolph (Point Pleasant, now West Virginia) in 1777.

The Fort Finney treaty of 1786

Fort Finney Treaty of 1786

As colonists and later the Americans, crowded into Native American lands in the Ohio Valley and beyond, large chunks of those lands were usurped from the natives. This story was typical of the many mistreatments foisted upon the Indians. The Fort Finney treaty of 1786 was a prelude to the war for Ohio.

Blue Jacket or Weyapiersenwah (c. 1743 – c. 1810)

Blue Jacket or Weyapiersenwah (c. 1743 – c. 1810) was a war chief of the Shawnee people, known for his militant defense of Shawnee lands in the Ohio Country. Perhaps the preeminent American Indian leader in the Northwest Indian War, in which a pan-tribal confederacy fought several battles with the United States, he was an important predecessor of the famous Shawnee leader Tecumseh.

Moor’s Charity School

Moor’s Charity School was founded in 1754 in Lebanon, Connecticut, by Puritan, Calvinist minister Eleazar Wheelock to provide education for Native Americans who desired to be missionaries to the native tribes.

Joseph Brant, (Thayendanegea)

Joseph Brant, Mohawk Chief

Joseph Brant, Indian name Thayendanegea, meaning “he places two bets”  (born 1742, on the banks of the Ohio River—died November 24, 1807, near Brantford, Ontario, Canada), was a Mohawk Indian chief who served not only as a spokesman for his people but also as a Christian missionary and a British military officer during the American Revolution (1775–83).

Seneca Indian chief Red Jacket, or Sa-Go-Ye-Wat-Ha (1758-1830)

Red Jacket, Seneca chief

Dispute exists about where in New York Red Jacket was born. It could have been at Old Seneca Castle near Geneva, NY, near Cayuga Lake, or even Keuke Lake. His family did spend much time there when he was a boy, and his mother was buried there. So the Keuke Lake location is the most probable.