Philip J. “Woodchuck” Welmas

Philip

Philip J. “Woodchuck” Welmas (February 26, 1891 – November 15, 1968) was a Native American professional football player in the early National Football League.

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Benjamin Harjo, Jr.

Benjamin Harjo, Jr, artist

Benjamin Harjo Jr. (born 1945) is an award-winning painter and printmaker from Oklahoma. Harjo is half-Seminole and half-Shawnee and is enrolled in the Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma.

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Ernest Spybuck (Maythela)

Absentee-Shawnee Artist Earnest Spybuck, circa 1910

Ernest Spybuck (January 1883 – 1949), a.k.a. Mathkacea or Mahthela, often spelled his first name Earnest. He was born on the Potawatomi-Shawnee Reservation near Tecumseh, Oklahoma, to the White Turkey Band of the Absentee Shawnee, of the Rabbit clan. His parents were Peahchepeahso and John Spybuck.

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Trail of Tears

At the beginning of the 1830s, nearly 125,000 Native Americans lived on millions of acres of land in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina and Florida–land their ancestors had occupied and cultivated for generations. By the end of the decade, very few natives remained anywhere in the southeastern United States.

Working on behalf of white settlers who wanted to grow cotton on the Indians’ land, the federal government forced them to leave their homelands and walk hundreds or even thousands of miles to a specially designated “Indian territory” across the Mississippi River (where Oklahoma is today). This difficult and sometimes deadly journey is known as the Trail of Tears.

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General Facts about Totem Poles

Raven Totem Pole

On this page is a list interesting facts about totem poles including where the Indian tribes that made them were, why they sculpted totem poles, how they made them, and what materials they used.

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American Indian Baskets

From ancient times to the present, Native Americans have created baskets. In fact, basket weaving is one of the oldest crafts developed by man.

Native American Indian baskets range from very simple to elaborate and colorful works of art that took great skill to make. This artwork often involves secret techniques that have been passed down from generation to generation among Native American Indian mothers and daughters.

It is not uncommon for a well-crafted basket to contain over one hundred thousand stitches! 

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Red Cloud’s War

Red Cloud’s War, also referred to as the Bozeman War or the Powder River War, was an armed conflict between the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Northern Arapaho on one side and the United States in Wyoming and Montana territories from 1866 to 1868. The war was fought over control of the western Powder River Country in present day north-central Wyoming. This grassland, rich in buffalo, was traditionally Crow Indian land, but the Lakota had recently taken control. The Crow tribe held the treaty right to the disputed area, according to the major agreement reached at Fort Laramie in 1851. All involved in “Red Cloud’s War” were parties in that treaty.

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The Colorado War

The Colorado War was an Indian War fought from 1863 to 1865 between the Cheyenne and Arapaho Nations and white settlers and militia in the Colorado Territory and adjacent regions.

The Kiowa and the Comanche played a minor role in actions that occurred in the southern part of the Territory along the Arkansas River, while the Sioux played a major role in actions that occurred along the South Platte River along the Great Platte River Road, the eastern portion of the Overland Trail.

The United States government and Colorado Territory authorities participated through the Colorado volunteers, a citizens militia while the United States Army played a minor role. The war was centered on the Colorado Eastern Plains.

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List of Indian Wars fought in Colorado

There were seven major Indian Wars fought in Colorado between 1864 and 1879.

The Colorado region was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1535 to 1682, New France from 1682 to 1762, Kingdom of Spain from 1762 to 1800, French First Republic 1800 to 1803, and part of the United States of America 1803–present (boundaries were disputed by Spain).

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1833 Fort Gibson Treaty with the Western Cherokee

These are the articles of agreement and list of signees for a treaty made at Fort Gibson on the Arkansas River in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) on February 14, 1833 between representatives of the United States and the Western Cherokees (Cherokees west of the Mississippi River).

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1828 Treaty with the Western Cherokee

This treaty signed in the City of Washington on May 6, 1828 removed the Western Cherokee from the Territory of Arkansas to West of the Missississippi River. This is a copy of the full articles of that treaty, along with the list of signees. It also has clauses that pertain to the Choctaw and Creek Indians.

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1819 Treaty with the Cherokee

This is the full articles and list of signees of the February 27, 1819 Treaty with the Cherokee signed in the City of Washington, a corrected copy made March 1, 1819, and incorporating ammendments added at Cherokee Agency on January 6, 1817 and July 8, 1817.

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1817 Treaty with the Cherokee

This is the full text and list of signees of the treaty made between the United States and the Cherokee at the Cherokee Agency on July 8, 1817.

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1816 Turkey Town Treaty (Cherokee)

This is the full text and list of signees of a treaty made at the Chickasaw Council House on September 14, 1816 between the United States and the Cherokee Indians, which was ratified at Turkey Town October 4, 1816.

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1816 Washington Treaty 2 (Cherokee)

This the full text and list of signees of a treaty at Washington city on March 22, 1816, which was ratified on April 8, 1816.

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1816 Washington Treaty (Cherokee)

This is the full text and list of signees of a treaty made in Washington city on March 22, 1816, which was ratified on April 8, 1816.

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1806 Washington Treaty (Cherokee)

This is the full text and list of signees of a treaty made in the city of Washington between the United States and the Cherokee on January 7, 1806, which was ratified on May 22, 1807.

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1805 Tellico Treaty 2 (Cherokee)

This is the full text and list of signees of a treaty at Tellico on October 27, 1805 between the United States and the Cherokee Indians.

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1805 Tellico Treaty (Cherokee)

This is the full text and list of signees of a treaty made between the United States and the Cherokee Indians at Tellico on October 25, 1805.

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1804 Tellico Treaty (Cherokee)

This is the full text and list of signees of a treaty between the United States and the Cherokee Indians signed at Tellico on October 24, 1804.

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1798 Treaty of Tellico (with the Cherokee)

This treaty further clarified parts of the 1791 Treaty of Holston and 1794 Treaty of Philadelphia that had not previously been enforced between the United States and the Cherokee.

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1794 Treaty of Philladelphia (with the Cherokee)

The 1794 Treaty with the Cherokee was concluded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on June 26, 1794. It reinforced the 1791 Treaty of Holston, and added to its terms.

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1791 Treaty of Holston (with the Cherokee)

A Treaty of Peace and Friendship made and concluded between the President of the United States of America and the Cherokee Nation of Indians signed on  July 2, 1791 in Philadelpia, Pennsylvania.

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1785 Treaty with the Cherokee

Articles concluded at Hopewell, on the Keowee, between Benjamin Hawkins, Andrew Pickens, Joseph Martin, and Lachlan M’Intosh, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, of the one Part, and the Head-Men and Warriors of all the Cherokees of the other signed on November 28, 1785 at Hopewell.

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1854 Treaty with the Chasta (Shasta), Etc.

This is the full text, along with the list of signees of the 1854 Treaty with the Chasta (Shasta), Etc. at Apple Creek, Oregon Territory struck on November 18, 1854 between the United States and the Chasta (Shasta), Scotons, and the Grave Creek band of Umpquas.

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1855 Treaty with the Walla Walla, Cayuse, Etc.

This is the full text and list of signees of a treaty  signed June 9, 1855 at Camp Stevens, Washington Territory between the US and the Walla-Wallas, Cayuses, and Umatilla tribes, and bands of Indians, occupying lands partly in Washington and partly in Oregon Territories. It was ratified March 8, 1859.

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1794 Treaty with the Six Nations

This is the full text and signee list of a 1794 treaty with the Six Nations concluded at  Konondaigua, New York on November 11, 1794. The Six Nations include the Senecas, Mohawks, Onondagas,  Cayugas, Oneida and Tuscarora Nations. However, this treaty was never ratified by the US Senate.

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1789 Treaty with the Six Nations

This is the full text and signees of a treaty made at Fort Harmar on January 9, 1789 with the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Tuscaroras, Cayugas, and Senecas, otherwise known as the Six Nations.

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1784 Treaty with the Six Nations

This is the full text with signees of a 1784 Treaty with the Six Nations signed at Fort Stanwix on October 22, 1784, representing the Senecas, Mohawks, Onondagas,  Cayugas, Oneida and Tuscarora nations. 

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1792 Treaty with the Five Nations

This is the full text and signees of a 1792 treaty with the Senecas, Oneidas, Stockbridge Indians, Tuscaroras, Cayugas, and Onondagas signed on April 23, 1792 in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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1818 Treaty with the Peoria, Etc.

This is the full text of a treaty made  between, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners on behalf of the United States of America, and the undersigned, principal chiefs and warriors of the Peoria, Kaskaskia, Mitchigamia, Cahokia, and Tamarois tribes of the Illinois Nation of Indians, on behalf of the said tribes, signed on September 25, 1818.

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1835 Treaty with the Caddo

This is the full text of the articles of a treaty made at the Agency-house in the Caddo nation,State of Louisiana, on tJuly 1, 1835 between Jehiel Brooks, Commissioner on the part of the United States, and the Chiefs, head men, and Warriors of the Caddo nation of Indians, along with a list of the signees.

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1838 Treaty with the New York Indians (Six Nations and St. Regis)

This is the full text, including signees of the 1838 treaty made with the New York Indians of the Six Nations confederacy  and the St. Regis tribe on January 15, 1838 at Buffalo Creek, New York.

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1865 Fort Sully Treaty (Blackfeet-Sioux)

This is the full text and signees of the 1865 treaty made at Fort Sully, Dakota Territory with the Blackfeet-Sioux on October 19, 1865 and ratified on March 5, 1866.

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1855 Blackfeet Treaty

This is the complete text and list of signees for the 1855 Blackfeet Treaty made on October 17, 1855 on the Upper Missouri, near the mouth of the Judith River, Nebraska Territory. Signees included representatives of the Blackfoot Nation, consisting of the Piegan, Blood, and Blackfoot, and the Gros Ventres, Flathead, Upper Pend d’Oreille, Kootenay, and the Nez Percé tribe of Indians. It contained provisions against intoxication.

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1825 Treaty with the Belantse-Etoa or Minitaree Tribe (Hidatsa)

This is the full text and signees of a treaty made at the Lower Mandan Village on July 30, 1825. Among other terms, it set down rules to regulate trade with Indian tribes, particularly, the selling of guns.

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1868 Fort Bridger Treaty with the Eastern Band of Shoshone and Bannock

This is the full text and signees of the 1868 Fort Bridger Treaty with the Eastern Band of Shoshone and Bannock made at Fort Bridger, Utah Territory, on July 3, 1868 and ratified on February 26, 1869.

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1866 Fort Berthold Treaty (Arikara, Gros Ventres and Mandan)

This is the full text of the 1866 Fort Berthold Treaty signed at Fort Berthold, Dakota Territory on July 27, 1866. This agreement was between the United States and the Arikara, Gros Ventres, and Mandan, but was never ratified.

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1825 Treaty with the Arikara Tribe

This is the full text of a treaty made at the Arikara Village on July 18, 1825. It regulates trade with the Indians, in particular the selling of guns.

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1868 Fort Laramie Treaty with the Sioux and Arapaho

This article contains the full text of the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty with the Sioux and Arapaho signed on April 29, 1868 at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, and ratified on February 24, 1869.

Among the Soiux chiefs present were representatives of the Brule, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet-Sioux, Cuthead, Two Kettle, Sans Arcs, and Santee Sioux.

This treaty covered more than 40 areas of concern, including the establishment of military forts.

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1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie with Sioux, etc.

This article contains the complete text and of the Fort Laramie Treaty signed on September 17, 1851, and signed by chiefs of the Dakota Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow, Assinaboines, Gros-Ventre, Mandans, and Arikara tribes residing south of the Missouri River, east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the lines of Texas and New Mexico.

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1868 Treaty with the Northern Cheyenne and Northern Arapaho

This article contains the actual text and signees of the 1868 treaty with the Northern Cheyenne and Northern Arapaho at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory on May 10, 1868.

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1861 Treaty with the Arapaho and Cheyenne

This article contains the original text and signees of the 1861 Treaty with the Arapaho and Cheyenne at Fort Wise, Kansas Territory, on February 18, 1861.

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1833 Treaty with the Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians (Econ-chati-mico)

The Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians became a federal tribe under the Additional Article of the 1823 Treaty with the Florida Indians. Six chiefs from among the thirty-two Florida Indian leaders were rewarded with tribal status and a 100 mile reservation in Northwest Florida as friendly allies of the Americans during the Patriot Revolution, War of 1812, the Creek War 1813, and the First Seminole War in 1820. That reservation was surrendered in the following treaty.

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1833 Treaty with the Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians (Mulatto King)

The Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians became a federal tribe under the Additional Article of the 1823 Treaty with the Florida Indians. Six chiefs from among the thirty-two Florida Indian leaders were rewarded with tribal status and a 100 mile reservation in Northwest Florida as friendly allies of the Americans during the Patriot Revolution, War of 1812, the Creek War 1813, and the First Seminole War in 1820. That reservation was surrendered in the following treaty.

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1832 Treaty With The Appalachicola Band

The Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians became a federal tribe under the Additional Article of the 1823 Treaty with the Florida Indians. Six chiefs from among the thirty-two Florida Indian leaders were rewarded with tribal status and a 100 mile reservation in Northwest Florida as friendly allies of the Americans during the Patriot Revolution, War of 1812, the Creek War 1813, and the First Seminole War in 1820. That reservation was surrendered in the following treaty.

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Crow Treaties

CROW      Treaty With The Crow Tribe, 1825      Treaty With The Crows, 1868      Agreement With The Crows, 1880 (Unratified)      Treaty Of Fort Laramie With Sioux, Etc., 1851

Muscogee (Creek) Treaties

Numerous treaties were made with the Muscogee (Creek) Indians between 1790 and 1865. The Creek Indians resided in the Southeast.

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Colville Confederated Tribes Treaties

COLUMBIA (Now Colville Confederated Tribes)      Agreement With The Columbia And Colville, 1883 COLVILLE (Now Colville Confederated Tribes)      Agreement With The Columbia And Colville, 1883

Clackamas Treaties

CLACK-A-MAS (Also CLOCKAMUS)      Treaty With The Kalapuya, Etc., 1855

Choctaw Treaties

CHOCTAW (Also CHACTAW; CHAKTAW)      Agreement With The Cherokee And Other Tribes In The Indian Territory, 1865     Treaty With The Choctaw And Chickasaw, 1837      Treaty With The Choctaw, 1786      Treaty With The Choctaw, 1801      Treaty With The Choctaw, 1802      Treaty With The Choctaw, … Continue reading

Chippewa Treaties

CHIPPEWA (Also CHIPPEWAY; CHIPAWA)      Treaty With The Wyandot, Etc., 1785      Treaty With The Wyandot, Etc., 1789      Treaty With The Wyandot, Etc., 1795      Treaty With The Wyandot, Etc., 1805     Treaty With The Ottawa, Etc., 1807     Treaty With The Chippewa, Etc., 1808      Treaty … Continue reading

Chickasaw Treaties

CHICKASAW (Also CHICKESAW)      Agreement With The Cherokee And Other Tribes In The Indian Territory, 1865      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1786      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1801      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1805      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1816      Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1818     Treaty With … Continue reading

Cheyenne Treaties

CHEYENNE (Also CHAYENNE)      Treaty With The Apache, Cheyenne, And Arapaho, 1865      Treaty With The Arapaho And Cheyenne, 1861      Treaty With The Cheyenne Tribe, 1825      Treaty With The Cheyenne And Arapaho, 1865      Treaty With The Cheyenne And Arapaho, 1867      Treaty With … Continue reading

Cherokee Treaties

CHEROKEE      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1785      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1791      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1794      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1798      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1804      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1805      Treaty With The Cherokee, 1805      Treaty With The Cherokee, … Continue reading

Cayuga Treaties

Cayuga Treaties       Agreement With The Five Nations Of Indians, 1792 Treaty With The Six Nations, 1784 Treaty With The New York Indians, 1838 Treaty With The Six Nations, 1789 Treaty With The Six Nations, 1794

Blackfeet Treaties

Alternate Names / Alternate Spellings: Blackfoot, Blackfoot Nation, Bloods  Blackfoot is the correct spelling, as it is spelled in Canada. However, the US Government made a mistake and labeled members of the tribe on the US side of the border … Continue reading

Hidatsa Treaties

Alternate names / Alternate Spellings: Belantse-Etoa, Belantse-Etea, Belaantse-Eta, Minitaree, Minnetaree, Three Affiliated Tribes Hidatsa Treaties Treaty With The Belantse-Etoa Or Minitaree Tribe, 1825 Modern Day Tribe Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation

Caddo Treaties

Caddo Treaties (Also spelled or pronounced Cadoe) Treaty With The Caddo, 1835 Treaty With The Comanche, Aionai, Anadarko, Caddo, Etc., 1846Treaty with the Comanches and other tribes. Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Council Springs in the county … Continue reading

Kiowa Treaties

Alternate Names/Alternate Spellings: Kioway Kiowa Treaties: 1837 Treaty With The Kiowa, Etc. 1853 Treaty With The Comanche, Kiowa, And Apache 1865 Treaty With The Comanche And Kiowa 1867 Treaty With The Kiowa And Comanche 1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek … Continue reading

Comanche Treaties

The Comanches were the first Native people to adopt the classic horse-mounted lifestyle of the Plains. Shoshone speakers, including proto-Comanches, probably moved to the Northern Plains in the sixteenth century. 

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1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek (With The Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache)

This article is the actual text of a treaty made with the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Indians on October 21, 1867 at the Council Camp on Medicine Lodge Creek, Kansas.

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Shoshone and Bannock Treaties

Shoshone and Bannock Treaties (Also spelled Shoshoni) Treaty With The Eastern Shoshoni, 1863Treaty With The Shoshoni—Northwestern Bands, 1863Treaty With The Western Shoshoni, 1863Treaty With The Eastern Band Shoshoni And Bannock, 1868 Famous Shoshone