Navajo Marine given conscientious-objector status

AUTHOR: Electa Draper The Marine commandant reversed his earlier decision Wednesday and granted conscientious-objector status to Pvt. Ronnie Tallman, a 19-year-old Navajo from Tuba City, Ariz. Tallman believes his newfound calling as a medicine man makes it impossible for him … Continue reading

Floyd Red Crow Westerman

Floyd Red Crow Westerman

Floyd Red Crow Westerman is probably best known for his role in the western epic ‘Dances with Wolves.’ Today, Westerman is also involved with other projects that bring awareness to subjects like the environment.

How do native americans celebrate Christmas?

QUESTION: How do native americans celebrate Christmas? –Submitted by Tifany J.

What are the origins of the game called Stick Ball?

We are producing a television programme in the U.K. covering the subject of ‘Traditional team sports played throughout the world’. We are interested in filming a documentary about the traditional sport ‘Stickball’ and would like to speak to someone involved … Continue reading

Where can I buy smudge sticks?

desert sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata

QUESTIONS I am looking to buy smudge sticks or products to relieve my home of a spirit family. I was told to go to a reserve in Arizona and buy from an old woman behind the counter. I have no … Continue reading

Did the Blackfeet Indians develop a particular breed of horse?

I know the Blackfeet Indians had a reputation as fierce warriros and excellent horsemen. But did they develop a particular breed of horse?
–Submitted by John L.


The Blackfoot Buffalo Horse is a descendant of the Spanish Mustang.

The popular opinion is that all Indian horses descended from animals brought to the Americas by Columbus, and Cortez in the early 1500s, and Ponce de Leon and other later explorers and immigrants. However some Indian tribes say they had horses before Europeans came. The Blackfoot tribes have their own legends about how the blackfoot aquired the horse.

Who do I need to contact to find out about college financial aid for Indian students?

QUESTION: I want to bring my daughter, (social security number removed) who is 17 years old, to your Cherokee Tribe office to get a photo id and information about what we have to do to get her money for college. … Continue reading

What can you tell me about Cahokian pottery?

example of Cahokia Pottery

QUESTION:I have three pieces of pottery I want to give to the Cahokian Indians. I’ve been told they are authhentic, and I bought them at a local flea market . I have not had them authenticated , but the person … Continue reading

Are there any indian reservations in Florida?


Are there any indian reservations in Florida? We heard there was a tribe in Ormond Beach, Florida but cannot get any info on them.
–Submitted by Marie F.


There are indian reservations in Florida, but I don’t know of an Indian tribe with a reservation in Ormond Beach, Florida. There is a pow wow held there. It’s called the Native American Festival and is held at the Casement Cultural Center.

What can you tell me about the Lummi Indians from the San Juan Island (WA) area?

QUESTION: I’m currently doing some research on the Lummi Indians within the San Juan Island (WA) area. I’d appreciate learning about their general customs, health rituals/medicines & their symbols. Thanx for responding at your earliest convenience. –Submitted by Deb L..

How does the wedding vase ceremony go?

Question: I am a non-denominational wedding minister in North Carolina. I have a bridal couple that want to include the wedding vase in their ceremony. Do you have the wording that you can share for this ceremony? We would greatly … Continue reading

Which, if any, of the following Indian tribes are extinct?

I’m doing research on American Indian tribes. Could you tell me which if any of the following tribes are extinct:
“Abenaki” – spelled variously as: Abenaqui, Abnaki, Alnanbal, Benaki, Oubenaki, Wabanaki, Wippanap;
Montagnais (Algonquin);
Anagonges (Iroquois);
Aquannaque (Huron);
Gannongagehronnon (Mohawk);
Natsagana (Caughnawaga);
Owenunga; and Skacewanilom (Iroquois) 

Also, are the Abnaki, also known as Abenaki, considered an official native American tribe by the United States government?
–Submitted by Randy K.


The many, many names of the north american indians who make up the group of indians known as the Abenaki can be quite confusing. All of the names you mentioned are actually just various names for the Abenaki indians in the Wabanaki Confederacy, or place names related to them.

Where can I find a spiritual leader to study under?

QUESTIONMy guess is that you receive dozens upon dozens of emails from people searching for cure alls…I’m 37 and have found a point in my life where I have found that modern technology, medicine and Spirituality just don’t fit my … Continue reading

Can you get me my Indian enrollment card?

My Grandpa married an Indian Princess. Can you get me my Indian enrollment card and how much will it cost?
Submitted by Elizabeth J.


1. Sorry, no. That’s the short answer.We get some variation of this question at least 50 times a week. We don’t even have time to read them all, let alone answer them. There are people who make a living researching other people’s ancestry for a fee. We don’t. We make our living publishing this website, and that’s a full time job.

But occasionally, (like now) we will give you some general information (again) that may help you get started doing your own research or at least teach you how to inquire for information.

What tribes were affected by Hurricane Katrina?

In lieu of a mailbag question today, we are reporting on tribes hit by Hurricane Katrina. –Submitted by

Will a DNA test prove my blood quantum for enrollment in the Seminole tribe?

I was told in order to prove that I am Seminole, I have to take a blood test that has something to do with blood quantum but that test is so expensive. Do you have any suggestions?
–Submitted by Halfbreed

I am looking for hunting opportunities on the Crow Creek Reservation

QUESTION: I plan to hunt pheasants in South Dakota the 2nd week of Nov. I am interested in the hunting opportunities that may be available on the Crow Creek Reservation. Please send me any info you may have. Also, I … Continue reading

I am looking for my native language. Can you help me?

QUESTION: As close as I have come to knowing a base language comes from the “AthaPaskan” region. I am “Wailaki” and i know other tibes share the same variety of language ie: Nongatl,Lassik,Sinkyone,and Kato.If anyone has any information to help … Continue reading

Can you help me find appropriate representations of Chief Washakie?

I have been asked to make a costume for a young student who will be portraying Chief Washakie at her elementary school. I would like the costume to be as authentic as possible. Can you help me find appropriate representations?
–Submitted by Miki P.

Linguistically, the Shoshone and the Paiute are a Numic people with direct linkages to the Comanche and Utes (Uto-Aztecan) to the south, to the Bannock to the east, and to the western Nevada and northern California Paiutes.

The Western Shoshone (the Newe) and the Northern Paiute (Numa) often had contact with each other and established respect for each other’s language and mingling of culture prior to European contact.

Chief Washakie was the last free roaming chief of the Eastern Shoshone. In many photographs, Chief Washakie is wearing a scarf threaded through a large silver concho disc.

Where is Sitting Bull buried?

QUESTION:Where is Sitting Bull buried?–Submitted by Robby J.

What does the hummingbird represent to native american people?

Question: What does the hummingbird represent to native american people? –Submitted by Clara D.

How did the Lytton Indians get their name?

Question: Why are the Lytton Indians named as such? I am a Lytton and I am curious why these Indians were named after a very British surname. –Submitted by James L.

What can you tell me about the Wincot tribe?

Question: Do you know where I could get information about the Wincot tribe that supposedly lived in the Grand Rapids, MI area 1,000 years or so ago? I was told by an archeologist they existed. –Submitted by Faye W.

Do Indians still live on reservations in America today?


Please, I have a question. I’m living in Spain, and my english isn’t good. Today do there exist some reserve with native indians in America?

–Submitted by Eva X.J. from Spain


There are over 600 Indian tribes still living in the US and several hundred more in Canada. Some tribes have less than 10 members such as some of the California tribes which are nearly extinct, and some tribes have thousands of members.

Do you know anything about Chief Washita’s family?

I am a relative of the late Chief Washita, of the Shoshone tribe. He had a daughter who married Jim Bridger, Her indian name is Little Fawn and they had a daughter named Mary Elizabeth, that is my great great great great grandmother.

I have the history on Jim Bridger, but I want to know the history on Chief Washita and his family and where I really come from. I am Shoshone Indian, and I live in Oklahoma. Any help is greatly appericated in trying to trace my indian roots.

Any information on the shoshone tribe? I am not sure where we come from. I have been told it was the Duck Bill Reservation in Wyoming, or the Wind River Reservation, so I am not sure. Any help or information is greatly appericated,
–Submitted by lace_431961

What does the word ‘Washoe’ mean?

QUESTION: What does the word “Washoe” mean? –Question Submitted by Kathy W. ANSWER: As is the case with the names most Indian tribes called themselves, “Washoe” means simply “the People,” and was also used to describe the area they lived … Continue reading

I would like to know more about the ceremony performed for those who have passed over due to suicide.

QUESTION: I grew up in the Black Hills of South Dakota. I would like to know more about the ceremony performed for those who have passed over due to suicide. I am a hospice nurse and feel the presence of … Continue reading

What local issues are the Caribou Inuits facing today?

QUESTION:What local issues are the Caribou Inuits facing today? Is there much government help regarding these issues?

When did the western shoshone first make contact with europeans?

QUESTION:Can anyone tell me when western shoshone (ely area) first made contact with europeans and how that effected their lives? I have Jedediah Smith in 1827 but do not know if he was actually in the Ely area.

Which is the correct spelling, Lakhota or Lakota?

QUESTION: I’m doing research on the branch of the Sioux tribe called Lakotas. I’ve seen the name spelled both as Lakhota and Lakota. Which is the correct spelling?

What can you tell me about the the Algonquain Indians?

Map of Algonquin Territory

QUESTION: My 3rd grader is doing a school project on the Algonquain Indians. I have serched the internet for hours before I found a bit of helpful information on your website. Could you please supply me with any other information … Continue reading

What does a storyteller look like?


QUESTION: I am trying to locate images of the storyteller. I remember seeing a figure with children around it. Is that what they look like? Can you help me?

What do the flags in a grand entry mean?

QUESTION: Do you have any information on what the flags mean at grand entries and the specific purpose?

Why do people yell Geronimo?

QUESTION:Why do people yell “Geronimo” before jumping off something? This article has moved to our new Apache section under Why do we yell Geronimo?

Do you have any information on the Choctaw tribe?

Do you have any information on the Choctaw tribe: where they are now and what language they spoke?

Are Zia Indians American Indians?


I am doing an assignment on american indians. I was just woundering if Zia indians (Zia Pueblo tribe) were american indians? Some of the information on the net is a bit confusing. –Submitted by Jaspa K.


Hi Jaspa,

Yes, the Zia Pueblo Indians are american indians. “Pueblo Indians” is a broad term that includes many separate tribes (villages) named after the pueblos (multi-story communal houses which form a village) they lived in, who were all related by common ancestors in ancient times. The Pueblo Indians are the descendants of the Hohokam, Mogollon, Keresan, and the Anasazi prehistoric cultures of the Southwestern United States and Mexico.