Louis Sockalexis, first American Indian to play major league baseball

Although it was discovered in the 1960s that the first Native American in the major leagues was James Madison Toy, who played in the American Association in 1887 and 1890, the first man known and treated as an American Indian was Louis Sockalexis, a member of the Penobscot tribe.Born on October 24, 1871 on the Penobscot Indian reservation outside of Old Town, Maine, Sockalexis displayed incredible athletic talent in his youth.

Some Creeks had owned slaves prior to 1865, and by treaty they were required to adopt them into the tribe

Pleasant Porter was elected principal chief on September 5, 1899, on a platform of compromise with the federal government. In addition to dealing with tribal dissension over the agreement, Porter also had to try to resolve the controversial question of the rights of the freedmen.

The Dawes Commission adopted a very narrow view of their powers

On August 4, 1898, Aylesworth gave Isparhecher a signed receipt for twenty-five 1896 town census rolls. It had taken more than two years of requests and then threats of court action to get just one of the “official rolls.” The ninety days that the Dawes Commission had to decide applications under the 1896 act had, of course, long since elapsed.

The Creeks were overwhelmingly opposed to allotment

The Creeks were overwhelmingly opposed to allotment or any change in the treaty of 1832, which had forced them to move to Indian Territory. One full-blood expressed a common sentiment when he told a Senate investigating committee that “I love my treaty, and I want my old treaty back.”(21) He went on to say that “I will never stop asking for this treaty, the old treaty that our fathers made with the Government which gave us this land forever … as long as the grass grows, water runs, and the sun rises.”(22)

At a meeting held in Okmulgee on April 3, 1894, the commissioners explained at great length to a crowd of nearly three thousand (mostly full-bloods) all of the benefits allotment would bring, but the entire group “voted” against the plan.(23)

The Dawes Commission and the Enrollment of the Creeks

What can you do when you “discover” a continent, but there are already people living there? Europeans arriving in North America tried a number of approaches to solve what was often referred to as “the Indian Problem,” depending on the relative military power of the natives and non-natives.

Pueblo Wedding Vase Ceremony

Buy this Indian Wedding Vase Prayer Matted Art Print

To celebrate the wedding ceremony indigenous people of the Southwest and Southeast used a pottery jar or pot with a handle on each side and two spouts, called a ‘wedding vase’. Usually a week or two before they are married by a priest, the future husband’s parents make the Wedding Vase.

Menominee is an indigenous language of the United States

Region: Northeastern Wisconsin, on what was formerly the Menomini Reservation.

Kickapoo is an indigenous language of the United States

Region: Northeastern Kansas: Horton; central Oklahoma: McCloud, Jones; Texas: Nuevo Nacimiento. Also spoken in Mexico.

Naskapi is an indigenous language of Canada

Region: 2 communities in Quebec and Labrador. Those in Kawawachikamach are about 10 km northeast of Schefferville in northeastern Quebec at the height of land (watershed). On December 15, 2002 most of the Mushuau Innu moved from Utshimassits (Davis Inlet) … Continue reading

Montagnais is an indigenous language of Canada

Region: 11 communities in Quebec and Labrador, from Lake St. John eastward along the Saguenay Valley to the north shore of the St. Lawrence River and Gulf of St. Lawrence eastward to St. Augustin, northward to the height of land … Continue reading

Woods Cree is an indigenous language of Canada

Region: Far north Manitoba and Saskatchewan, inland southwest from Churchill, Manitoba into Saskatchewan.

Swampy Cree is an indigenous language of Canada

Region: Ontario, along the coast of Hudson Bay and northern west coast of James Bay, and inland into Saskatchewan.

Navajo Code Talkers Dictionary

The Navajo Code Talkers’ Dictionary was declassified under Department of defense Directive 5200.9. Here it as revised on June 15, 1945.

Moose Cree is an indigenous language of Canada

Region: Southern tip of James Bay, Moosonee, Ontario. This community and surrounding area (Moose Factory, Ontario). Has speakers of Moose Cree, East Cree, and Swampy Cree in it.

Northern East Cree is an indigenous language of canada

Region: West central Quebec, east coast of lower Hudson Bay and James Bay, communities of Whapmagoostui, Chisasibi, Wemindji, and most people in Eastmain.

Plains Cree, an indigenous language of Canada and the US

Region: North central Manitoba westward across Saskatchewan and central Alberta to the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Also spoken in USA.

East Cree, Southern: native american language of Canada

Region: Quebec, southeastward from James Bay, inland to the height of land (watershed) east of Lake Mistissini. Coastal communities of Waskaganish, some speakers in Eastmain. Inland, in Mistissini, Waswanipi, Nemaska, and Ouje-Bougoumo.

Atikamekw, A Cree language of Canada

Region: Three isolated communities on reservations of Manuane, Obedjiwan, Weymontachie, between La Tuque, Quebec, and Senneterre, Quebec, 200 to 400 km north of Montreal in south central Quebec, along the upper reaches of the St. Maurice River.

Map of Vanishing Native American Languages

This animated map illustrates how Euro-American settlement between 1600 and today displaced Native Peoples and eradicated their languages.

Changing Offensive Names

My international movement to rename Minnesota’s Rum River is steadily gaining more and more support. Recently, several Minnesota legislators sent me letters wherein they thanked me for the work that I am doing to change this river’s derogatory name.