New Hampshire Tribes
NEW HAMPSHIRE INDIAN TRIBES
FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED TRIBES IN NEW HAMPSHIRE
(Federal List Last Updated 5/16)
STATE RECOGNIZED TRIBES
(Not recognized by the Federal Governemnt)
UNRECOGNIZED / PETITIONING TRIBES
- Abenaki Indian Center, Inc.
- Abenaki Nation of New Hampshire
- Pennacook New Hampshire Tribe
FIRST CONTACT TO PRESENT
The Abenaki and Pennacook Indians were living in the area of New Hampshire when Europeans arrived. It is unknown who the first white men to explore the area were, but general exploration began in the 1600s. Europeans came to New Hampshire for economic reasons, looking to exploit the resources of the area, especially forests, furs, and fish.
In 1603, the Englishman Martin Pring explored the mouth of the Piscataqua River. John Smith explored the Isles of Shoals in 1614, naming them Smith’s Islands.
European diseases brought to the New World by early settlers may have killed as many as 95% of the natives in the area of New Hampshire. Those remaining retreated to Vermont and Canada under pressure from English settlers.
PRE-CONTACT NEW HAMPSHIRE TRIBES
PRE-HISTORIC CULTURES IN NEW HAMPSHIRE
- 7000 - 1000 B.C. - Archaic Period; Native Americans move seasonally around New Hampshire to live, hunt, gather, and fish.
- 1000 B.C. - 1600 A.D. - Woodland Period; Native Americans establish villages and develop trade networks, and ceramic and bow and arrow technology.
Archaeologists believe the first humans came to the area now known as New Hampshire around 10,000 years ago after the glaciers receded and the climate warmed. These tribes became more settled and less nomadic as time went on. Because of climate and length of growing season, tribes in the north of New Hampshire probably engaged in more hunting while tribes in the south engaged in relatively more agriculture, although agriculture probably never had the importance in early New Hampshire that it had further south in what we now call Massachusetts.
Sources of records on US Indian tribes