- Smallpox, war and American Indians
- Utah’s Navajos are leading a push to create the Bears Ears National Conservation Area
- Government returns confiscated eagle feathers to tribal religious leader after 9 years
- Consensus Classification of California Indian Languages
- Indigenous Languages Spoken in the United States by Location and Number of Fluent Speakers
- 86 languages indigenous to California
- 178 indigenous languages in the US are endangered
- Customs agents lack cultural awareness and respect for Indian tribes along the US-Canadian border
- Tribes prohibiting gay marriage
- Are you related to the Aztecs?
- Tribes Win Landmark Child Welfare Case
- $975,000 grant to get more Native Americans into health care fields
- Pueblo Revolt of 1680
- Tiguex War
- Bloody Island Massacre
Na-Dene Language Family
Na-Dené (also Na-Dene, Nadene, Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit) is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit.
The Na-Dene family includes:
Tlingit language: 700 speakers (M. Krauss, 1995)
Eyak language: 1 speaker, (N. Barnes, 1996)
Navajo is the most widely spoken language of the Na-Dené family, spoken in Arizona, New Mexico, and other regions of the American Southwest. Dene or Dine is a widely distributed group of Native languages and peoples spoken in Canada, Alaska, and parts of Oregon and northern California. Eyak is spoken in the Alaskan panhandle and today there is only one speaker left.
Genetic relation proposals
Haida, with 15 fluent speakers (M. Krauss, 1995), was once considered a member of the Na-Dené family, but most linguists consider the evidence inconclusive and classify it as a language isolate.
According to Joseph Greenberg's highly controversial classification of the languages of Native North America, Na-Dené-Athabaskan is one of the three main groups of Native languages spoken in the Americas, and represents a distinct wave of migration from Asia to the Americas.
The other two are Eskimo-Aleut, spoken in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic; and Amerind, Greenberg's most controversial classification, which includes every language native to the Americas that is not Eskimo-Aleut or Na-Dené.
Contemporary supporters of Greenberg's theory, such as Merritt Ruhlen, have suggested that the Na-Dené language family represents a distinct migration of people from Asia to the New World. The time of this migration is estimated to have been six to eight thousand years ago, placing it around four thousand later than the initial population of the continents by Amerind speakers. Ruhlen speculates that the Na-Dené speakers may have arrived in boats, initially settling near the Queen Charlotte Islands, now in British Columbia, Canada.
According to the (also controversial) linguistic theory of Sergei Starostin, Na-Dene is a member of the Dene-Caucasian superfamily, along with the North Caucasian languages and Sino-Tibetan languages.
Professor Edward Vajda from the Modern & Classical Languages Department of the Western Washington University considers these languages to be related to Yeniseian (or Yeniseic) languages in Siberia, which would also support the controversial theory of Starostin and others'.
American Indian Language Family Trees
Goddard (1996) & Mithun (1999)
2. Na-Dene (47)
Haida, Northern (Canada)
Haida, Southern (Canada)
Nuclear Na-Dene (45)
Athabascan (Athapaskan, Athapascan, Athabaskan, ) (43)
Kiowa Apache (1)
Eastern Apache (3)
Apache, Jicarilla (USA)
Apache, Lipan (USA)
Apache, Mescalero-Chiricahua (USA)
Western Apache-Navajo (2)
Apache, Western (USA)
Carrier, Southern (Canada)
Slavey, North (Canada)
Slavey, South (Canada)
Pacific Coast (9)
Ahtena (USA) (aka Ahtna, Copper River or Mednovskiy)
Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim (4)
Tanana, Lower (USA)
Tanana, Upper (USA)
Upper Kuskokwim (1)
Kuskokwim, Upper (USA)
Tutchone, Southern (Canada)
Tutchone, Northern (Canada)