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Creek Indians

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CREEK INDIAN TRIBES



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MOUNDBUILDER ORIGINS

Moundbuilders, the first great civilization in North America, arose 4,000 years before the Spanish set foot on the islands of coastal Georgia. From the oldest of these sites, Poverty Point in Louisiana, this great culture spread across two-thirds of the United States, following the Mississippi north to Minnesota, its tributaries, including the Ohio, east and west deep into the continent, and around the Florida peninsula into coastal Georgia.

By the time Spanish conquistadors worked inland in search of the wealth of a continent the Moundbuilder culture was in steep decline. Cahokia, Etowah and Ocmulgee, major cities of a dying culture, were no longer active sites. The remaining Moundbuilders were absorbed into the Woodland cultures which they dominated. With few exceptions in the state of Georgia, the Indians that deSoto met were not Moundbuilders, but these remnants of that tribe.

The Muscogee (Creek) people are descendents of this remarkable culture that, before 1500 AD, spanned all the region known today as the Southeastern United States. The Creek were originally one of the dominant tribes in the mid-south and later became known as one of the Five Civilized Tribes.

Most of the Creeks descended from groups living in six towns: Cusseta, Coweta, Areka, Coosa, Hoithle Waule, and Tuckabatchee, all within the confines of the future Alabama and Georgia. The historic Muscogee later built expansive towns in Florida and South Carolina.

They were known in their own language as Muskoke or Muskogee, by the Shawnee as Humaskogi, by the Delaware as Masquachki and by the British as the Ochese Creek Indians, hence the present name. Their name has been adapted for that of their linguistic group and for Muskogee, Oklahoma, which was a major city of the Creek Nation in Indian territory. Also see Moundbuilders.


FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED TRIBES

STATE RECOGNIZED TRIBES
(Not recognized by the Federal Governemnt)

  • Machis Lower Creek Indian Tribe
  • Star Clan of Muskogee Creek Tribe of Pike Co.
  • Cher-O-Creek Intra Tribal Indians
  • Lower Muskogee Creek

UNRECOGNIZED TRIBES
(Petitions Pending)

  • Blount Band of Apalachicola Creek Indians
  • Prinicipal Creek Indian Nation E. of the Mississippi


CREEK CONFEDERACY
(Historical tribes who were members of the Creek Confederacy)

Most of the Creeks descended from groups living in six towns: Cusseta, Coweta, Areka, Coosa, Hoithle Waule, and Tuckabatchee, all within the confines of the future Alabama and Georgia. These groups most probably formed the confederacy. Later, the Creeks established the practice of adopting conquered tribes and accepting bands fleeing from English, French, and Spanish attacks. By these methods the Alabama, Coushatta, Hitchitee, Tuskegee, and Natchez Indians eventually became Creeks.

  • Alabama
  • Apalachicola
    • Blount Band of Apalachicola Creek Indians
  • Chiaha
  • Coushatta
  • Creek
    • This was by far the largest tribe in the confederation, both in land and population. This culture lived and regularly hunted from the Tennessee River to to the St. Mary's, and west to Alabama.
  • Guale
  • Hitchiti (Hitchitee)
  • Icafui
  • Kasihta
  • Natchez
  • Okmulgee
  • Oconee
  • Osochi
  • Tacatacuru
  • Tamathli
  • Tuskegee
  • Yemasee
  • Yuchi (Yuchee)
    • This tribe lived along the southeast coast.
  • Yui


  • TOWN DIVISIONS

    • White (Peace)
      • White towns hosted councils for concluding peace, adopted conquered tribes, and enacted most laws and regulations for internal affairs. Although members of white clans were associated with peace, they were expected to fight during wars.
    • Red (War)
      • Red towns declared war, planned military expeditions, and held diplomatic councils.


    TRADITIONAL ENEMIES



    SIGNIFICANT BATTLES/WARS

    • Battle of Horseshoe Bend
    • Battle of Round Mountain
      • Site of the first Civil War battle in Indian Territory. Neutral Creeks under the leadership of Opothleyahola defeated Confederate forces of the Texas Cavalry on November 19, 1861.
    • Battle of Taliwa
    • Green Peach War
    • Queen Anne's War
    • Yemassee Wars
    • Fought against the English during the French and Indian War
    • Red Stick War (Creek War of 1813-1814)


    HISTORICAL FIGURES

    • Chief John Blount, chief of the Blount Band of Apalachicola Creek Indians
    • Chief Samuel Checote
      • Principal Chief of the Creek Nation form 1867-1875.
    • Chief Emistesigo
    • Chief Great Mortor
    • Chitto Harjo
    • Sugar T. George
    • Harry Island, Black Creek (Freedmen)
    • Chief Isparhechar
      • Creek leader who directed conservation factions during the Green Peach War, and served as Principal Chief from 1895-1899.
    • The Freedmen: Silas Jefferson
    • James Coody Johnson
    • Fat King
    • Tame King
    • Menawa
    • Freedmen John Myers, Creek Lighthorseman
    • Opothle Yahola (Opothleyahola)
    • Pleasant Porter
      • Principal Chief of the Creek Nation from 1899-1907.
    • Peter McQueen
    • Alexander McGillivray
    • Alexander Posey
      • Noted Creek poet and political humorist.
    • William Weatherford (Red Eagle)


    DIVISIONS IN THE CREEK NATION

    • Upper Creek
    • Lower Creek

    CREEK CLANS

    The Creek clans marked with an asterisk are now extinct. The final algi means 'people': Creel clan membership was determined by a child's mother.
    • Alligator Clan (Halpadalgi)
    • '
    • Bear Clan (* Muklasalgi, Nokosalgi
    • Beaver Clan (Itamalgi, *Isfanalgi, Itchhasuaigi)
    • Bird Clan (Fusualgi)
    • Bog Potato Clan (Ahalakalgi )
    • Deer Clan (Itchualgi
    • Fish Clan (Hlahloalgi)
    • Fox Clan (Tsulalgi )
    • Hickory-Nut Clan (* Odshisalgi )
    • Maise Clan (Aktayatsalgi, Atchialgi)
    • Mole Clan (Takusalgi )
    • Otter Clan (Osanalgi)
    • Panther Clan (*Chukotalgi, Katsalgi
    • Raccoon Clan (* Wahlakalgi, Wotkalgi )
    • Salt Clan (* Okilisa, *Oktchunualgi)
    • Skunk Clan (Kunipalgi)
    • Toad Clan (*Pahosalgi, Sopaktalgi)
    • Wild-Cat Clan (Koakotsalgi)
    • Wind Clan (Hutalgalgi)
    • Wolf Clan (Yahalgi )


    CREEK GENEALOGY



    CREEK GAMES



    CREEK LANGUAGE



    <== [[TABLE OF CONTENTS] ==>
    Today's Mail Bag: I am trying to find out how to register on the Creek Indian registry.I am also trying to find out what website or telephone number to call so I can get this info.
    --Submitted by Jon T.

    Answer: Read the answer here

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